Resistance can develop to them with a single mutation

Info icon This preview shows pages 5–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
can cause rash and hepatitis. Resistance can develop to them with a single mutation. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) -This is a class of drugs that is incorporated into the elongating DNA chain copy of the HIV RNA made by the reverse transcriptase enzyme. Once incorporated however, the next nucleoside can not be added hence this medications are often call “chain terminators”. The commonly used medications in this class are zidovudine (AZT, ZDV or Retrovir), lamivudine (3TC or Epivir), abacavir (Ziagen), didanosine (Videx or ddI), stavudine (Zerit or d4T). The related compound, a nucleotide, is tenofovir (Viread). These compounds differ, one from another, with different side effects and can produce different resistance mutations in HIV. AZT and 3TC have been combined into Combivir and together with abacavir as Trizivir. Opportunistic Infections - A variety of infections that occur in individuals who do not have healthy immune systems. These diseases do not normally occur in healthy persons. Opportunistic infections can occur in patients with AIDS (usually less that 200 CD4 lymphocytes), patients on immunosuppressive medications for organ transplantation or patients with malignancies receiving chemotherapy. Pediatric AIDS - Clinical AIDS in children under 13. Because more common or even rare congenital infections and congenital immune-related diseases must be eliminated as a cause of illness, a working definition of pediatric AIDS is open to more interpretation. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - Method of amplifying (increasing) the quantity of small amount of viral DNA or RNA so that it can be detected and measured. Predictive Value - The likelihood that an individual with positive test results actually has the disease (i.e., is a true positive), or the likelihood that an individual with a negative test does not have the disease (i.e., is a true negative). The predictive value of a positive test is equal to the number of true positive individuals divided by the number of all positives identified. Because the HIV antibody tests were designed to be highly sensitive and accurately identify as many true positives as possible, they have a very high predictive 5
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
value, especially when used in high-risk populations, where the number of diseased people is high. The predictive value of positive test results generally decreases when performed in low-risk populations, where there are fewer diseased persons. Prevalence - The number of people in a given population who have a disease, divided by all the people in that population over a specific point in time. (e.g. the proportion of the population with disease). Protease - An enzyme made by HIV that modifies HIV proteins and is necessary for the virus to reproduce. Protease Inhibitor - A class of drugs that prevents the HIV protease enzyme from working by binding to the active site in the enzyme where the HIV amino acid chain would lie to be cut or cleaved into its active parts or proteins. The commonly used medications include: indinavir (Crixivan), atazanavir, ritonavir (Norvir), saquinavir (Fortase and Invirase), nelfinavir (Viracept), amprenavir (Agenerase).
Image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern