-Desoto 1540, smallpox went northward from Mexico; didn’t have to do anything to take over; villagers were dead; we now estimate that there were 20 million Native Americans when Columbus arrived, and after decreased by 95% ; measles, typhus, mumps, devastating epidemics ; Very little evidence that disease went from West to East EXCEPT syphilis; very few domesticated animals in the Americas, so no stock of animals living in close proximity for virus to spread to humans ; Many of the most lethal diseases to humans are found in animals; Most lethal diseases happen in animals and spread; It was close contact with animals and a lot of viruses came from domesticated animals; They could just hunt for game. They did not have animals living close to them. IV. Intentional Germ Warfare A. Plague associated with war 1 i. plague broke out among Tatars; “let’s see if we can plague the Italians” ii. flung dead bodies into the fortress iii. didn’t work because came from fleas, not dead bodies B. Civil War use of yellow fever a. fatal hemorrhagic disease b. southern spies figured out to make epidemic in NY c. anonymous unclaimed trunks sent d. except yellow fever isn’t spread by people, need insect vector e. spies were found and prosecuted f. modern medical science didn’t know that it was passed by mosquitoes by 1901 C. Aum Shinrikyo— cult in Japan a. 1990 try to spread botulism by car exhaust
b. 1993 anthrax by roof of building V. Anthrax -anthrax dissipated too greatly before killing anyone c. serin into Tokyo subway (killed 12 people); bio warfare is difficult A. US mail system was attacked a. 5 people died (staff) & 18 infected b. secretaries that breathed in the spores c. all sent from the Princeton office d. CDC suggested a biodefense worker in Maryland may have been responsible i. history of mental illness, never had the definite evidence that it was a match ii. committed suicide by overdose of acetaminophen B. What is anthrax? a. rod like bacteria that usually exists in the soil and usually infects grazing animals (i.e. cows, sheep) b. rare in humans, but there are 2 types: 1 i. cutaneous (skin) infection, dig around the dirt and get it, not deadly ii. inhalation; inhale them deeply into lungs; can be fatal iii. not infectious among humans → have to get it by breathing the powder C. Effects on mail system a. anthrax went through the mail centers b. centers were shut down
c. cleaned up d. then reopened e. radiated mail→ frying the papers i. lower level of radiation which makes it safer
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