Family studies: Method of studying genetic and environmental influence that examines similarities in traits between pairs of siblings who have different degrees of genetic similarity—for example, identical twins, full biological siblings, half siblings, and unrelated stepsiblings who live together in stepfamilies. Twin studies & adoption studies. What are monozygotic/identical twins & dizygotic/fraternal twins (p. 66-67) ? Identical 1:250, fraternal 1:125 Define and distinguish the different genotype/environment correlations: passive, evocative, & active and show how the relative importance of the three types of interactions may change with age (p. 84). Gene-environment correlations: A systematic interrelationship between an individual’s genes and that individual’s environment; ways in which genes influence the kind of home environment provided by parents (passive gene–environment correlation),
the social reactions to the individual ( evocative gene–environment correlation), and the types of experiences the individual seeks (active gene–environment correlation). Passive refers to the initial experience, what is provided by parents. Evocative refers to the social aspect, which grows as the child does in ability to interact with their environment. Active refers to their own influence on their environment, which increases with age. Chapter 4 Prenatal/Perinatal Development Who determines the sex of the baby – the mother (egg cells) or the father (sperm cells)? The father – he can contribute either X or Y and the mother always contributes an X. Know the entire process of sex determination: genes, prenatal hormonal surges, puberty hormonal surges, etc. as covered in class . Define conception, p. 92. Distinguish between prenatal (p. 93) vs. perinatal (p. 114). What is a morula, blastula/blastocyst? (Know ZEF)? day event 1 Fertilization 2 Zygote begins to divide 3-4 Morula; 16 cells; fallopian tube travel 5 Blastocyst; inner cell mass forms 6-7 Blastocyst attaches to the wallk of the uterus 8-14 blastocysts becomes fully embedded on uterine wall; ~250 cells
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- Spring '08