Some people also began to resent the multiplication of sacraments by the

Some people also began to resent the multiplication

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the HRE. Some people also began to resent the multiplication of sacraments by the reforming popes who had intended to insert the Church into significant events and into the life of the believer (McKay et al., 2017; Ozment, 1981). When the pope tried within the year to force Luther to recant, Luther’s own supervisors in the Augustinian order took his side, and his influence spread through the trade routes, the monasteries, and especially wherever there was a printing press. Cities with at least one printing press were more likely to adopt The Sale of Indulgences , a woodcut by Hans Holbein the Younger, is one of many illustrations the artist created that criticized the Catholic Church. It juxtaposes the Protestant and Catholic approaches to salvation, with earnest Protestant penitence on the left vs. the Catholic purchase of indulgences in the money- changer’s house that was the gaudy court of Pope Leo on the right. There is evidence that Holbein relied on Luther’s first German version of the Bible, published in 1522, for inspiration (Grossman, 1961). (Holbein, ca. 1529) Ego Sum Papa (I am the Pope ) is a 16th century example of anti- clericalism. This is a French woodcut of Pope Alexander VI, father of ruthless Italian prince Cesare Borgia, used by Machiavelli as an example of successful seizure of power (unknown artist in the late 1500s). (Ego sum Papa, ca. 1500)
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