As velocity increases limbs move faster Small swimmers have to work harder to

As velocity increases limbs move faster small

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As velocity increases, limbs move faster Small swimmers have to work harder to move faster As velocity increases, drag increases
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© 2019 Swimming – MR and CoT Mass- specific MR CoT Velocity
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© 2019 Why aren’t Daphnia shaped like fish? Small swimmers live in a viscous world Inertial forces are negligible
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© 2019 Flying
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© 2019 Forces acting on a flier PicPetz Gravity Lift Drag Thrust
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© 2019 Mass Affects Fliers Fliers must work to overcome gravity Fliers must work to overcome drag
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© 2019 Velocity Affects Fliers As velocity increases, limbs move faster Very small fliers have to work hard to move fast This trend is reversed in medium to large fliers As velocity increases, both lift and drag increase
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© 2019 A Wing Beat Produces Lift and Thrust Induced power: Parasite power : Mass- specific MR Velocity
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© 2019 Flying – MR and CoT Mass- specific MR CoT Velocity
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© 2019 Animal Locomotion: Cost of Transport -Tucker (1975; American Scientist 63:413) Energy cost of moving a unit mass a unit distance [energy • mass -1 • distance -1 ) human swimming human cycling
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  • Spring '14
  • Topic 10, Locomotion, Reid

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