Disorders of the Eye Indications for Self Treatment Dry eye Allergic

Disorders of the eye indications for self treatment

This preview shows page 22 - 30 out of 43 pages.

Disorders of the Eye – Indications for Self-Treatment Dry eye Allergic conjunctivitis Corneal edema Loose foreign substances in the eye/minor eye irritation
Image of page 22
Etiology of Ophthalmic Disorders Ocular discomfort associated with dry eye disease is the most common condition for which non-prescription ophthalmic products are used Dry eye disease affects 5 million people in the US ages ≥ 50 Many common conditions associated with ocular discomfort are minor and self-limiting
Image of page 23
Considerations for Intraocular Drug Delivery Ambient tear volume of 7-10 μL on the ocular surface Very little volume for drug delivery Reflex tearing increases lacrimal production by up to 300% Up to 90% of instilled drug dose may be lost Avascular tissue Cornea of eye is a largely avascular, which limits drug absorption
Image of page 24
Pathophysiology of Ophthalmic Conditions Dry eye: most often associated with aging, but can also be caused by lid defects, corneal defects, loss of lid tissue turgor, Sjogren’s syndrome, Bell’s palsy, thyroid eye disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic medicationsAllergic conjunctivitis: large variety of antigens that can cause ocular allergy, but the most common include pollen, animal dander, and topical eye preparationsCorneal edema: overuse of contact lenses, surgical damage, inherited corneal dystrophiesLoose foreign substance in eye: introduction of substances to the ocular surface such as dust, sand, hair, and other mechanical irritants (contact lenses)
Image of page 25
Clinical Presentation of Ophthalmic Conditions Dry eye: mild redness accompanied by a sandy or gritty feelingAllergic conjunctivitis: red eye with watery discharge and itchingCorneal edema: fluid accumulation distorts optical properties resulting in halos or starbursts around lightsLoose foreign substances in eye: eye watering and feeling as if something is in the eye
Image of page 26
Dry Eye - TreatmentGeneral approach: ocular lubricationNon-pharmacologic therapy: avoid environments that increase evaporation of the tear film (dry/dusty), use of humidifiers, stay away from heating and air conditioning vents, avoid prolonged screen viewing, use of eye protection in windy environmentsPharmacologic therapy: artificial tear solutions in combination with non-medicated ointments
Image of page 27
Dry Eye – Ophthalmic Lubricants Wide variety of artificial tear products Commonly used formulations: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, and povidone Selection of appropriate product: all about the viscosity Lower viscosity: shorter duration more easily diluted and drained Higher viscosity: longer duration less easily diluted and drained Products may contain combination of lower & higher viscosity substances Dosing: once or twice daily (mild); TID-QID (more severe) Max = QHourly Ointments: normally applied QHS and contain petrolatum 60% and mineral oil 40%
Image of page 28
Ophthalmic Preservatives Destroy or limit growth of microorganisms Can result in toxicity and irritation to eye Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) adverse effects
Image of page 29
Image of page 30

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 43 pages?

  • Spring '14
  • Buckley,T

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture