In hours no later violence record later violence

This preview shows page 2 - 3 out of 6 pages.

(in Hours) No Later Violence Record Later Violence Record Total [Television Category, (various)] 1 Hour 83 5 88 1 – 3 Hour(s) 299 87 386 3 + Hours 166 67 233 Total [no-Violence or Violence] 548 159 707 [Explanation of Chart: this chart depicts the OBSERVED data from the information given in the description above] Television Category (in Hours) No Later Violence Record Later Violence Record Total [Television Category, (various)] 1 Hour 68.21 19.79 88 1 – 3 Hour(s) 299.19 86.81 386 3 + Hours 180.60 52.40 233 Total [no-Violence or Violence] 548 159 707 [Explanation of Chart: this chart depicts the EXPECTED data extrapolated from the observed data above] Television Category (in Hours) No Later Violence Record Later Violence Record Total [Television Category (various)] 1 Hour 3.21 11.05 N/A 1 – 3 Hour(s) 0.0001 0.0004 N/A 3 + Hours 1.18 4.07 N/A Total [no-Violence or Violence] N/A N/A 19.50 [Explanation of Chart: this chart depicts the test statistical data; the formula is the following: Observed Expected ¿ 2 ¿ ¿ X 2 = Σ ¿ ] 2
Image of page 2

Subscribe to view the full document.

Further Explanation: the X 2 (test statistic) value is 19.50; the df (degrees of freedom) value is 2, found using the following equation: ( row 1 ) ( column 1 ) = ( 3 1 ) ( 2 1 ) = 2 ; since, 35.0 > ¿ 5.99 critical value for P = 0.05 for 2 degrees of freedom; therefore, P < 0.05 . We need to Reject Null Hypothesis (H 0 ). The P-value is nearly zero (P = 0.00006). We can then say that there is a relationship with childhood TV watching and future violence; that is, those individuals that watched less than one hour of TV were less likely to have a record than those individuals who watched three or more hours of TV. ( C ) This study does not prove that TV watching causes increased aggression in kids. The study is considered observational and not experimental and we (the researchers) do not know if the individuals that watched more TV have other factors in common. [ Please Note: please continue to next page to find the rest of questions #20 and #21, respectively ] Question 2 [ Statement ]: Day care centers expose children to a wider variety of germs than the children would be exposed to if they stayed at home more often. This has the obvious downside of more frequent colds and other illnesses, but it also serves to challenge the immune system of children at a critical stage in their development. A study by Gilham et al. (2005) tested whether social activity outside the house in young children affected the probability of later developing the white blood cell disease acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer of children. They compared 1272 children with ALL to 6238 children without ALL. Of the ALL kids, 1020 had significant social activity outside the home (including day care) when younger. Of the kids without ALL, 5343 had significant social activity outside the home. The rest of the children in both groups lacked regular contact with children who were no in their immediate families.
Image of page 3
You've reached the end of this preview.
  • Fall '17
  • John doe
  • Statistical hypothesis testing, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern