Positive illusions tendencies to perceive ourselves

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Positive illusions- tendencies to perceive ourselves more favorably than others doPositive psychology- discipline that has sought to emphasize human strengthsDefensive pessimism- the strategy of anticipating failure and then compensating for thisexpectation by mentally over-preparing for negative outcomesYerkes-Dodson Law- inverted U-shape relation between arousal on one hand and mood andperformance on the otherApproach- predisposition toward certain stimuliAvoidance- predisposition away from certain stimuliIntrinsic motivation- people are motivated by internal goalsExtrinsic motivation- people are motivated by external goals*Mark Lepper experiment*Contrast effect- once we receive reinforcement for performing a behavior, we anticipate thatreinforcement againWalter Cannon and Alfred Washburn suggested that stomach contractions cause hunger. TOtest this, Washburn swallowed a balloon that was inflated in his stomach. He reported hungerpangs with contractions, leading to correlation rather than causation.Glucostatic theory- when our blood glucose levels drop, hunger creates a drive to eat to restorethe proper levels of blood glucose
Leptin- hormone that signals the hypothalamus and brainstem to reduce appetite and increasethe amount of energy usedSet point- value that establishes a range of body and muscle mass we tend to maintainInternal-external theory- obese people are motivated to eat more by external cues rather thaninternal cuesBulimia nervosa- associated with a pattern of bingeing followed by purgingAnorexia nervosa- excessive weight loss and the irrational perception that one is overweightSexual response cycle1.Excitement: initiated by whatever prompts sexual interest2.Plateau: sexual tension builds and leads to orgasm3.Orgasm: sexual pleasure and physical changes peak4.Resolution: the body returns to its unstimulated phaseRobert Spitzer- homosexuality studyReciprocity- rule of give and take, a predictor of attractionSocial role theory- biological variables play a role in men’s and women’s preferencesCompanionate love- marked by a deep sense of friendship and fondness for one’s partner*Robert Sternberg- theories of love and hate*Chapter 10Developmental psychology- the study of how behavior changes over the life spanGene-environment interaction- the effects of genes depend on the environment in which they areexpressedNature via nurture- tendency of individuals with certain genetic predispositions to seek out andcreate environments that permit the expression of those predispositionsGene expression- activation or deactivation of genes by environmental experiences throughoutdevelopmentCross-sectional design- a design in which researchers examine people who are of different agesat a single point in timeCross-sectional designs do not test for cohort effectsCohort effects- effects due to the fact that sets of people who lived during one time period,called cohorts, can differ in some systematic way from sets of people who lived during a

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Term
Fall
Professor
Landy

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