A conservative inspector may reject partsthat contain rejectable discontinuities butthe inspector also may reject parts that donot contain rejectable discontinuities,with the result of unnecessary scrap andrepair. Neither scenario is desirable.Electromagnetic TestingStandardsTraditionally, the purpose of specificationsand standards has been to define therequirements that goods or services mustmeet. As such, they are intended to beincorporated into contracts so that boththe buyer and provider have a welldefined description of what one willreceive and the other will provide.Standards have undergone a process ofpeer review in industry and can beinvoked with the force of law by contractor by government regulation. In contrast,a specification represents an employer’sinstructions to employees and is specificto a contract or work place. Specificationsmay form the basis of standards through areview process. Standards andspecifications exist in three basic areas:equipment, processes and personnel.1. Standards for equipment includecriteria that address probes, artificialdiscontinuities and test results.Reference standards are work piecesthat contain artificial discontinuitiesfor instrument calibration and testprocedure verification.2. ASTM International and otherorganizations publish standards fortest techniques. Some other standardsare for quality assurance proceduresand are not specific to a test methodor even to testing in general. Tables 3and 4 list some standards used inelectromagnetic testing. The UnitedStates Department of Defense hasreplaced most military specificationsand standards with industry consensusspecifications and standards. A sourcefor nondestructive testing standards isthe Annual Book of ASTM Standards.53. Qualification and certification of testpersonnel are discussed below withspecific reference to recommendationsof ASNT Recommended PracticeNo. SNT-TC-1A.616Electromagnetic Testing
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Personnel Qualificationand CertificationOne of the most critical aspects of the testprocess is the qualification of testpersonnel. Nondestructive testing issometimes referred to as a special process.The term simply means that it is verydifficult to determine the adequacy of atest by merely observing the process orthe documentation generated at itsconclusion. The quality of the test islargely dependent on the skills andknowledge of the inspector.The American Society forNondestructive Testing (ASNT) has been aworld leader in the qualification andcertification of nondestructive testingpersonnel for many years. By 1999, theAmerican Society for NondestructiveTesting had instituted three majorprograms for the qualification andcertification of nondestructive testingpersonnel.
The Land, Nondestructive testing, electromagnetic testing
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