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-Mozarab: Christians who eat Arab food, conduct business in Arab, dress like an Arab. -Is it tolerance? There is intermarriage, conversion, etc. Cultural enclave – there’s aMuslim region, Christian region, and so on.
-We see the origins of mob violence against Jews in Iberia, and some become conversos. You could go to university and get an education, then entering the royal bureaucracy. Leads to division of “old Christians” and “new Christians.”-Edict of Pure Blood(1449) linked biological differences to race. If you descend from a Jew, Muslim, or heretic, your blood is forever tainted. Beforehand, if you were a Jew who converted to Christianity, some people may have questioned it but they were still able to integrate into Christian society. There was no emphasis on Jewish ethnicity as there is today. -In 1478 – 1492, the Spanish Inquisition is declared. Led Dominicans, sponsored by Church and by the state. Combination of both powers. Headed by Tomas de Torquemada, who himself was a converso. Inquisition was one led against Christians, but Christians who had converted from Judaism. After the Edict of Pureblood there was so much talk about conversos, who converted for political gain, and didn’t really acknowledge Jesus. Why is it so popular if only 5,000 people were executed? It sparked fear and respect because it was done so privately. Established the power of the Spanish crown and the church. AS a regular person, you don’t know what they are doing; conspiratorial. In 1492, Jewsare expelled completely from Spain because when they convert, they become problematic conversos. -The more that prosecution was allowed, the stronger the line between them and us. Ex: Europeans who go to the Americas don’t try to understand the natives, but they try to fit them into a mold. Leads to the language of imperialism, colonialism, nationalism. Crisis of the Middle Ages-Thanks to Philip IV’s tactics against Boniface, the Avignon Papacy is a strongholdin 1320.-Lollards refuse to teach in Latin, but in the vernacular in the 1350s.-12thand 13thcenturies were times of major change and expansion, but the 14th and 15this chaotic; horrible and devastating changes occur.-First big crisis begins in 1305 with the ideological crisis. Avignon papacy(1309 – 1377). Boniface is run out, and the papacy is moved to Avignon (lasts 70 years). At this time the pope becomes a reflection of the French monarchy. Peoplethought this was good for the pope, because he’d be free of the vassals (Cardinals)in Rome. They saw it as liberation. Others saw it as a horrible ploy by the French monarchy to get power from the papacy. Likened to the Babylonian slavery (??). Also the time when the papacy becomes extremely wealthy, and it’s this wealth that’ll be used for the Sistine Chapel. How was so much wealth accrued? Indulgences. Pope was a banker who doled out metaphorical penances. Indulgences used to be an act, and were carried out by a crusade, or volunteering at a hospital. Ex: When a pope wants to build a new church in France, you wouldn’t have to go on a pilgrimage, but you can instead give a monetary donation to someone called a pardoner. The pardoner said “Thanks for the money,now part of your sins will be remitted.” It’s in Avignon papacy that indulgences become so prevalent. Also, clerical benefices were bought. A benefice is an office
held directly through papal investment. So, cardinals hold benefices. In the 14