analyze closely all the facts of plague contagion that history or even memoirs provide us with, it would be difficult to isolate one actually verified instance of contagion by 4 S.v. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, "Antonin Artaud", accessed June 02, 2015, .
5 contact.” 5 This selection might seem farfetched or odd, but through a deeper examination it becomes clear that Artaud is using this as a metaphor for something bigger. Artaud’s shows a belief that the effects of the disease are just as great as the actual disease; the constant fear and chaos brought forth by the plague bring on as much pain and hurt as the legions and fevers. Living in constant fear of something takes a toll on the mind, which consequently has a result on the body. Artaud calls this belief “spiritual physiognomy.” 6 I definitely agree with this belief of spiritual physiognomy. The plague durig the 16 th and 17 th century was a very scary and real thing to everyone, there was constant fear of contracting the disease and as a result it forced people to act differently around others, and just in everyday life. Another Historian Francis Aiden Gasquet, had a belief that rats and fleas were responsible for bringing the plague to England, similar to the Roman Empire. 7 I also agree with this belief. Even though there is no actual way to prove that this was the reason as to why the plague began to spread, there is so much evidence backing the fact that rats and some insects carry diseases, so why couldn’t they transport those said diseases to people. Some of the belief I don’t actually believe in are of the more archaic type, such as the beliefs that God was responsible for the plague, or that it 5 Ian Munro, “The City and Its Double: Plague Time in Early Modern London,” In English Literary Renaissance, ed. Kinney, Arthur. (New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008), 246. 6 Munro, “The City and Its Double,” 247. 7 “Black Death,” , accessed June 8, 2015, - content/uploads/2011/06/Black-Death.pdf
6 was a result of the queen’s death outlined further along in this paper. Those two beliefs can never be proven and as a result has no actual backing, they are just merely theories proposed by citizens of the 16 th and 17 th centuries. In all, many historians have differing views on the plague, but my ultimate beliefs stick with those of more modern times such as Antonin Artuad and Francis Aiden Gasquet.