Personality the sum total of ways in which an

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Personality: The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. It describes the traits a person exhibits. For example, a person may be described as extraverted. In this chapter, we will look at some factors that can shape personality. What factors do you think affect personality? Do you think personality is affected by heredity, the environment, or both heredity and the environment? Heredity factors are determined at birth . For example, one’s gender and one’s temperament. A person who is shy may have inherited the trait from his or her parents. Environmental factors include the culture people are raised in, the type of schools or jobs that people do, or the type of friends that people interact with. Environmental factors can shape personality as identical twins brought up in different environments may have very different personalities from each other. Research suggests that both heredity and the environment play a role in influencing people’s personality. Both inborn characteristics and the external environment can shape personality. Think about your personality. What do you think shaped your personality? Do you behave in ways similar to your family members? Are there environment factors that affected your personality (i.e., attending a certain school, working in a certain job)?
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BUS103 STUDY UNIT 2 SU2 6 You should now read Robbins and Judge (2015), Chapter 5, pp. 154-156 to learn more about the factors that may contribute to the development of an individual’s personality. 2.2 Big Five Personality Model There are many theories on personality. In this course, we will focus on the Big Five Personality Model, one of the most researched personality models developed. The Big Five Model suggests that personality maps on to 5 dimensions. Extraversion: This refers to someone who is sociable, talkative and assertive. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet. High scores indicate you are an extrovert and low scores indicate that you are an introvert. Agreeableness: This refers to someone who is good natured, cooperative and trusting. This is a measure of your propensity to defer to others. High scores indicate that you value harmony while low scores indicate that you would prefer to have your say or your way on issues. Conscientiousness: This refers to someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organised. Those who score low on this dimension may be easily distracted, disorganised, or unreliable. Emotional stability: This refers to a person’s abi lity to deal with stress. High scores indicate positive emotional stability. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure, while those with low scores tend to be nervous, insecure, or anxious. People with low scores in emotional stability are said to be high in neuroticism.
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