International treaties on non proliferation and

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International treaties on non-proliferation and disarmament cannot be implemented properly unless they contain inbuilt and supportive provisions for verification. 42 Saturday, December 28, 2019 Current Affairs by SSP Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) Fourthly, such a treaty must be non-discriminatory. A treaty that addresses stockpiles will assist in making it non- discriminatory. Otherwise, such a flawed instrument would end up freezing asymmetries and make such a treaty inherently discriminatory and thereby lead to instability rather than the desired objective. Fifthly, the CD must negotiate all the four core issues on its agenda at the same time in a parallel process, giving equal priority and with the same objective of reaching international treaties for all four items. Chairman Joint Chiefs, General Tariq Majid argued that "a proposed fissile material cutoff treaty would target Pakistan specifically.” 43 Saturday, December 28, 2019 Current Affairs by SSP Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
CTBT History The PTBT in 1963 does not ban underground nuclear tests and peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE). Negotiations on a comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty started in 1994 in the Conference on Disarmament (CD). In June 1996, a final draft treaty was presented to the CD. Although an overwhelming majority of the CD member states 45 supported the draft, India opposed the treaty because of a provision for the entry-into-force of the treaty and the lack of a commitment by the nuclear-weapon States to eliminate nuclear weapons within a specified time-frame. As a result, in Aug. 1996, Australia submitted the identical CTBT draft to the UN General Assembly. It was adopted by the UN on Sept. 10, 1996 and was opened for signature at UN on Sept. 24, 1996. Saturday, December 28, 2019 Current Affairs by SSP Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
CTBT Summary Article I prohibits all nuclear explosions, peaceful or military, anywhere. Nuclear explosion does not apply to controlled nuclear reactions in nuclear reactors or inertial confinement fusion experiments. Article II establishes CTBTO in Vienna to ensure the treaty implementation and verification as well as providing a forum. Article III focuses on national implementation measures. 46 Article III Article IV elaborates on the global verification regime (IMS and IDC), consultation process, and on-site inspection request (which needs to specify an area less than 1000 km 2 with linear distance less than 50 km and requires 30 positive votes from 51 council members excluding involved states). Article V deals with compliance and sanctions. Article VI is about settlement of disputes. Saturday, December 28, 2019 Current Affairs by SSP Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
CTBT Summary Articles VII and VIII are about amendments and review of the treaty (at intervals of 10 years). A special provision permits any party to request, after ten years into force, permission to conduct underground tests for peaceful purpose, but the treaty make it extremely unlikely to get approval.

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