International treaties on non-proliferation and disarmamentcannot be implemented properly unless they contain inbuiltand supportive provisions for verification.42Saturday, December 28, 2019Current Affairs by SSP Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT)Fourthly,such a treaty must be non-discriminatory. A treatythataddressesstockpileswillassistinmakingitnon-discriminatory. Otherwise, such a flawed instrument wouldend up freezing asymmetries and make such a treaty inherentlydiscriminatory and thereby lead to instability rather than thedesired objective.Fifthly,the CD must negotiate all the four core issues on itsagenda at the same time in a parallel process, giving equalpriority and with the same objective of reaching internationaltreaties for all four items.Chairman Joint Chiefs, General Tariq Majid argued that "aproposed fissile material cutoff treaty would target Pakistanspecifically.”43Saturday, December 28, 2019Current Affairs by SSP Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
CTBT HistoryThe PTBT in 1963 does not ban underground nuclear tests andpeaceful nuclear explosions (PNE).Negotiationsonacomprehensivenuclear-test-bantreatystarted in 1994 in the Conference on Disarmament (CD).In June 1996, a final draft treaty was presented to the CD.Although an overwhelming majority of the CD member states45supported the draft, India opposed the treaty because of aprovision for the entry-into-force of the treaty and the lack of acommitment by the nuclear-weapon States to eliminate nuclearweapons within a specified time-frame.As a result, in Aug. 1996, Australia submitted the identicalCTBT draft to the UN General Assembly. It was adopted by theUN on Sept. 10, 1996 and was opened for signature at UN onSept. 24, 1996.Saturday, December 28, 2019Current Affairs by SSP Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
CTBT SummaryArticle Iprohibits all nuclear explosions, peaceful or military,anywhere. Nuclear explosion does not apply to controlled nuclearreactions in nuclear reactors or inertialconfinement fusionexperiments.Article IIestablishes CTBTO in Vienna to ensure the treatyimplementation and verification as well as providing a forum.Article IIIfocuses on national implementation measures.46Article IIIArticle IVelaborates on the global verification regime (IMS andIDC), consultation process, and on-site inspection request (whichneeds to specify an area less than 1000 km2with linear distanceless than 50 km and requires 30 positive votes from 51 councilmembers excluding involved states).Article Vdeals with compliance and sanctions.Article VIis about settlement of disputes.Saturday, December 28, 2019Current Affairs by SSP Asmatullah Junejo, PSP
CTBT SummaryArticles VII and VIIIare about amendments and review of thetreaty (at intervals of 10 years). A special provision permits anyparty to request, after ten years into force, permission to conductunderground tests for peaceful purpose, but the treaty make itextremely unlikely to get approval.