1 domestic public documents that are signed and

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(1) Domestic Public Documents That Are Signed and Sealed (2) Domestic Public Documents That Are Signed but Not Sealed (3) Foreign Public Documents (4) Certified Copies of Public Records (5) Official Publications (6) Newspapers and Periodicals (7) Trade Inscriptions and the Like (8) Acknowledged Documents (9) Commercial Paper and Related Documents (10) Presumptions Under a Federal Statute (11) Certified Domestic Records of a Regulatory Conducted Activity (12) Certified Foreign Records of a Regulatory Conducted Activity
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o Rule 1001: Definitions that Apply to this Article (The Best Evidence Rule) In this article, the following definitions apply: (a) Writing. A “writing” consists of letters, words, numbers, and their equivalent set down in any form (b) Recording. A “recording” consists of letters, words, numbers, or their equivalent recorded in any manner (c) Photograph. “Photograph” means a photographic image or its equivalent stored in any form. (d) Original. An “original” of a writing or recording means the writing or recording itself or any counterpart intended to have the same effect by the person who executed or issued it. For electronically stored information, “original” means any printout— or other output readable by sight—if it accurately reflects the information. An “original” of a photograph includes the negative or a print from it. (e) Duplicate. “Duplicate” means a counterpart produced by a mechanical, photographic, chemical, electronic, or other equivalent process or technique that accurately reproduces the original o Rule 1002: Requirement of Original An original writing, recording, or photograph is required in order to prove its content unless these rules or a federal statute provides otherwise. o Exceptions to the Best Evidence Rule: Rule 1003: Admissibility of Duplicates A duplicate is admissible to the same extent as the original unless a genuine question is raised about the original’s authenticity or the
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