depressionA prolonged and very severe economic recession (crisis). The economic crisis,which began around the time of the stock market crash in October 1929 and continuedthrough the 1930s, was called the “Great Depression”.developing country(also called a third-worldcountry) A country that is poor relative to“developed” countries. Such a country usually has weak industrial base, majority of itspopulation work in agriculture and have the low standard of living. Currently, the worldcontains more developing than developed countries.developed countryA state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technologicaland other infrastructure relative to developing countries. Similar terms: "advancedcountry", "first-world country". Sometimes, a term "post-industrial country" is used, asthe main economic base is in services rather than in production of goods.devolution An arrangement in which the sovereign central government devolves (gives) powerto regional governments as in Spain (to Catalonia) and the U.K. (to Scotland).despotismRuling through fear without regard to law and respect for people (similar to tyranny).dictatorship of the proletariatA revolutionary seizure of power by the "vanguard" of theworking class, the communist party, which then rules in order to introduce communism. diplomacyA system of formal, regularized communication of specialized professionals(diplomats) that allows states to peacefully conduct their business with each other. dialectic(s)The art or practice of arriving at the “truth” by the exchange of logical arguments.Popular in both Indian and Western philosophy (Socrates, Hegel, Marx). Generally, amethod of argument that systematically weighs facts or ideas in order to overcome theirreal or apparent contradictions in a new (higher) synthesis.dictatorOne who assumes absolute control without the free consent of the people. Dictatorstend to abuse their power.direct democracyA system of government based on public decisions made by citizens whomeet in an assembly or vote by ballot and directly making decision on behalf of theircommunity (polity).disinformationFalse information spread deliberately and often covertly (as by the planting ofrumors) in order to influence public opinion or obscure the truth.dissidentA person who actively opposes an established opinion, policy, or regime The term canbe used to refer to a number of types of dissidents, including political, social, and militantdissidents. The term was used for citizens of the Soviet bloc who criticized thedictatorship of the Communist Party. The people who used to write and who distributednon-censored non-conformist literature samizdat were persecuted and prosecuted by thestate authorities.downsizingReduction of the size of an organization, usually by firing the employees.