8 depression A prolonged and very severe economic recession crisis The economic

8 depression a prolonged and very severe economic

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depression A prolonged and very severe economic recession (crisis). The economic crisis, which began around the time of the stock market crash in October 1929 and continued through the 1930s, was called the “Great Depression”. developing country (also called a third-world country) A country that is poor relative to “developed” countries. Such a country usually has weak industrial base, majority of its population work in agriculture and have the low standard of living. Currently, the world contains more developing than developed countries. developed country A state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological and other infrastructure relative to developing countries. Similar terms: "advanced country", "first-world country". Sometimes, a term "post-industrial country" is used, as the main economic base is in services rather than in production of goods. devolution An arrangement in which the sovereign central government devolves (gives) power to regional governments as in Spain (to Catalonia) and the U.K. (to Scotland). despotism Ruling through fear without regard to law and respect for people (similar to tyranny ). dictatorship of the proletariat A revolutionary seizure of power by the "vanguard" of the working class, the communist party, which then rules in order to introduce communism. diplomacy A system of formal, regularized communication of specialized professionals (diplomats) that allows states to peacefully conduct their business with each other. dialectic(s) The art or practice of arriving at the “truth” by the exchange of logical arguments. Popular in both Indian and Western philosophy (Socrates, Hegel, Marx). Generally, a method of argument that systematically weighs facts or ideas in order to overcome their real or apparent contradictions in a new (higher) synthesis. dictator One who assumes absolute control without the free consent of the people. Dictators tend to abuse their power. direct democracy A system of government based on public decisions made by citizens who meet in an assembly or vote by ballot and directly making decision on behalf of their community (polity). disinformation False information spread deliberately and often covertly (as by the planting of rumors) in order to influence public opinion or obscure the truth. dissident A person who actively opposes an established opinion, policy, or regime The term can be used to refer to a number of types of dissidents, including political, social, and militant dissidents. The term was used for citizens of the Soviet bloc who criticized the dictatorship of the Communist Party. The people who used to write and who distributed non-censored non-conformist literature samizdat were persecuted and prosecuted by the state authorities. downsizing Reduction of the size of an organization, usually by firing the employees.
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