Were not skilled and they had native prejudice

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were not skilled, and they had native prejudice against them, they received wages low enough that they did not earn enough to support their families-Employers began paying piece rates, tied to how much a worker produced, rather than a daily wage-Conditions were still better than those in Europe, but they became harsher than ever beforeThe Factory System and the Artisan Tradition-Some artisans could not compete with prices of factory made goods; craftsmen formed organizations to protect their endangered positions and resist the new economic order-The skilled workers formed societies for mutual aid, combining to form organizations known as trade unions; they soon established the National Trades; Union-Labor leaders struggled against handicap of hostile laws and courts; the panic of 1837 weakened the movementFighting for COntrol-Workers tried to persuade state legislatures to pass laws setting a maximum workday; measures had no impact, because employers would simply require employees to sign an express contract that calls for more time on a job as a condition for hiring; states that limited child labor had minimal effect-In the case of Commonwealth v Hunt, it was declared that unions were lawful organizations
and that the strike was a lawful weapon; but the union movement remained ineffective-Unions had the primary purpose to protect the favored positions of their members by restricting admission to skilled trades-All craft unions excluded women, so they began establishing their own protective unions, but they did not deal with employers, instead serving an important role as aid for women workers-The flood of immigrant laborers were very eager to work, tolerating low wages, causing employers to ignore the plight of natives; the groups fought amongst each other rather than employersFree Labor-Most workers had hard lives, but they were proud of their personal freedoms and considered themselves a sovereign individual-Personal liberty was growing exponentially for more Americans-Some philosophers argued that the independency of the individual required them to escape from market economy and find freedom in solitude; freedom meant absence of slavery, meant leaving jobs they did not want, and moving to new areas; many northern laborers began to abhor slavery, because it was the antithesis of freedom and because it threatened jobs of free laborersPatterns of Industrial SocietyThe Rich and the Poor-The commercial and industrial growth of the US elevated average income of the people, but it
was distributed unequally; slaves, Indians, landless farmers, and many of the unskilled workers shared none of the economic growth-Because there was a significant number of rich people living in cities, a distinctive culture of wealth began to emerge, showing more wealth-NY tried to make the city as important as London and Paris, planning to build a great park that would show elegance and draw people to the upper city, where new real estate was available;

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