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61.Psychopath- people who have an antisocial personality that is a product of a defect or aberrationwithin themselves. 62.Psychopathic personality- a personality characterized by a lack of warmth and feeling. 63.Psychosis- a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. 64.Reality principle- the ability to learn about the consequences of one’s actions through experience. 65.Reciprocal altruism- according to sociobiology, acts that are outwardly designed to help others but that have at their core benefits to the self. 66.Sadistic personality disorder- a repeating pattern of cruel and demeaning behavior. 67.Schizophrenia- a type of psychosis often marked by bizarre behavior, hallucination, loss of thought control, and inappropriate emotional responses. 68.Secondary prevention programs- treatment programs aimed at helping offenders after they havebeen identified.
69.Social learning- the view that human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interaction, either directly from observing those who are close, or indirectly though the media. 70.Sociobiology- the scientific study of the determinants of social behavior, based on the view that such behavior is influenced by both the individual’s genetic makeup and interactions with the environment. 71.Sociopath-personality disorder characterized by superficial charm, a lack of empathy for others, amoral conduct, and lack of shame for antisocial behavior. 72.Somatotype- a system developed for categorizing people on the basis of their body build. 73.Superego- incorporation within the personality of the moral standards and values of parents, community, and significant others. 74.Tertiary prevention programs- crime control and prevention programs that may be a requirement of a probation order, part of a diversionary sentence, or aftercare at the end of a prison sentence. 75.Testosterone- the principal male steroid hormone. 76.Thanatos- the instinctual drive toward aggression and violence. 77.Trait theory- the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological and/or psychological traits. Review Questions1.Explain the origins of trait theory.Darwin’s discoveries encouraged other scholars to be certain that all human activity could be verified by scientific principles. 2.Explain positivism: the branch of social science that uses the scientific method of the natural sciences and suggest that human behavior is a product of social, biological, psychological, or economic forces. 3.What are the elements of the scientific method? Observation, hypothesis, test hypothesis, interpretation, and conclusion. 4.Explain sociobiology.the scientific study of the determinants of social behavior, based on the view that such behavior is influenced by both the individual’s genetic makeup and interactions with the environment.
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