Argument is a reasoned claim or series of claims supported by evidence All

Argument is a reasoned claim or series of claims

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Argument: is a reasoned claim, or series of claims, supported by evidence-All arguments are appeals, but not all appeals are arguments-Coercion: is influencing someone to do or think something by threats, unwarranted emotion, or force, which includes distorting, hiding, or preventing conscious choices
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-Appeals inspire feeling and arguments inspire thinking and reasoning-Rhetoric: the study of the way in which speaking and writing influence people to do or think what they otherwise would not do or think-Appeals to NeedsoPeople are motivated to change because of reasoned or rational choices that are in their best interestoPeople are motivated to change because of inherent human needs-People can be motivated to change their beliefs, attitudes, values, and behavior through influential appeals to reason, emotion, and character-Appeals to emotionsoFear appeals and scare tacticsoPropagandaoFalse advertising or fraudChapter 16: Making Arguments-Argument: a claim or series of claims supported by evidence through reasoningoMostly concerns with reasoning and logic-Informal logic: concerns the study of how people argue on an everyday basis by leaving some things unstated-Syllogism: an argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion drawn from those premises. oDeductive reasoning-The reason people are persuaded by a speaker is because they participate in the creation of arguments with the speaker. -Fundamental teaching of persuasion: a speaker is persuasive when he or she invites the audience to fill in the unstated parts. -Enthymeme is an argument that leaves a part unsaid or unstated-Toulmin stated that arguments have 3 partsoA claim: an assertion of somethingClaim of fact: asserts that something has happened, is happening, or will happenClaim of value asserts something is good or badClaim of policy: asserts that something should or should not change, happen, or be done in the futureoEvidenceoThe warrant or reasoning that links the twoWhat is irrational reasoning in one context is perfectly appropriate in another; reasoning is contextually bound-
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