Structuring expenditures are currently the most

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Structuring expenditures are currently the most popular way to deal with the agency problem—and also the most powerful and expensive. Compensation plans can be either incentive or performance plans. Incentive plans tie management performance to share price. Managers may receive stock options giving them the right to purchase stock at a set price. This provides the incentive to take actions that maximize stock price so that the price will rise above the option’s price level. This form of compensation plan has fallen from favor recently because market behavior, which has a significant effect on share price, is not under management’s control. As a result, performance plans are more popular today. With these, compensation is based on performance measures, such as earnings per share (EPS), EPS growth, or other return ratios. Managers may receive performance shares and/or cash bonuses when stated performance goals are reached. In practice, recent studies have been unable to document any significant correlation between CEO compensation and share price. 18. The key participants in financial transactions are individuals, businesses, and governments . These parties participate both as suppliers and demanders of funds. Individuals are net suppliers, which means that they save more dollars than they borrow, while both businesses and governments are net demanders since they borrow more than they save. One could say that individuals provide the excess funds required by businesses and governments. 19. Financial markets provide a forum in which suppliers of funds and demanders of loans and investments can transact business directly. Primary market is the name used to denote the fact that a security is being issued by the demander of funds to the supplier of funds. An example would be Microsoft Corporation selling new shares of common stock to the public. Secondary market refers to the trading of securities among investors subsequent to the primary market issuance. In secondary market trading, no new funds are being raised by the demander of funds. The security is trading ownership among investors. An example would be individual “A” buying common stock of Microsoft through a broker from individual “B”. Financial institutions and financial markets are not independent of each other. It is quite common to find financial institutions actively participating in both the money market and the capital market as both suppliers and demanders of funds. Financial institutions often channel their investments and obtain needed financing through the financial markets. This relationship exists since these institutions must use the structure of the financial marketplace to find a supplier of funds. 20. The money market is a financial relationship between the suppliers and demanders of short-term debt securities maturing in one year or less, such as U.S. Treasury bills, commercial paper, and negotiable certificates of deposit. The Eurocurrency market is the international equivalent of the U.S. money market and is used for short-term bank time deposits denominated in dollars or other major currencies.
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