39. If a DNA triplet is AGT, the mRNA codon would be UCA and the tRNA anticodon would be A GU 40. Ribozymes are non-protein molecules with catalytic activity. TRUE 41. For synthesis for an inducible enzyme to occur, a compound must bind to the repressor. 42. The simultaneous regulation of many bacterial genes is global control. 43. E-site is responsible for the release of the tRNA. 44. A drug that inhibits the activity of bacterial DNA gyrase would be a good antibiotic because it would selectively inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis due to differences between bacterial/human gyrase. 45. Lac operon is an example of negative control. 46. Adenine binds to thymine via three hydrogen bonds. False 47. Antigenic variation is a phenomenon used by some bacteria (such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae ) to evade host immune mechanisms. In this process, the cells can change the characteristics of certain surface proteins on the bacteria, forcing immune response to constantly adapt. 48. DNA polymerases move in a 3’ to 5’ direction on the template DNA. 49. The amino acid that is placed first during translation in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts is N-formyl-methionine. 50. Antisense RNA is the complement of the plus strand and may be useful in inhibiting translation. TRUE 51. Signal transduction is the relay of information about conditions outside a cell to inside the cell. 52. The specific sequence of nucleotides in the DNA to which the RNA polymerase binds is the promoter region. 53. DNA site to which the repressor protein binds is the operator. 54. Quorem sensing involves the production and monitoring of signaling molecules AND is used by bacteria to sense the density of cells within their population Chapter 7 Pictures:
Chapter 8 Animation: 1. Plasmids are able to replicate independently of the chromosome. 2. A recombinant organism is one that contains genes from another organism. 3. If you find that a particular plasmid has an R factor, the bacteria that has it will be resistant to certain antibiotics. 4. The main advantage for bacteria that have the ability to carry out conjugation and other forms of genetic exchange is that they become genetically diverse. 5. F+ cells have a plasmid and are donors in conjugation. 6. The F pilus is a protein appendage that attaches the two cells together. 7. The F pilus binds to specific receptors on the cell wall of the recipient. 8. The plasmid is mobilized for transfer when an endonuclease cleaves it at the origin of transfer 9. Plasmid DNA is transferred in single-stranded form. 10. The F plasmid encodes for the F pilus. 11. The first step in conjugation is contact between the donor and recipient. 12. After the transfer of the F plasmid is complete, the F- cell becomes F+. 13. The classic transformation experiment done by Griffith used harmless and virulent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
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