lOMoARcPSD3204883 List the factors that affect the speed of action potentials

Lomoarcpsd3204883 list the factors that affect the

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lOMoARcPSD|3204883
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List the factors that affect the speed of action potentials: Whether the axon has myelin Describe the structure of a synapse: lOMoARcPSD|3204883
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Distinguish between an electrical and a chemical synapse: Chemical synapse: Are abundant Involves a neurotransmitter o Are used to send messages, which is slower compared to electrical synapses. Can cause the action of multiple muscle cells Can be affected by multiple neurotransmitters, and can make the deecision to pass the information. Electrical synapses: Are rare Direct physical contact between cells (gap junctions) o As distance between synaptic junctions is shorter, they travel faster. Mostly used for sudden reactions, such as reflexes. Downloaded by Hansha Chandrasekaran ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3204883
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Central nervous system: Brain and Spinal cord List the structures that support and protect the central nervous system: Bones of cranium o Occipital o Parietal o Frontal o Temporal o Sphenoid o Ethmoid o The meninges o Membranes o Protective outer coverings of the CNS composed of connective tissue Three layers o Dura mater o Arachnoid mater o Pia mater Cerebrospinal fluid o Circulates in space between CNS and Meninges o Provides cushioning, supports weight of CNS, transports nutrients, chemical messengers and waste products. Downloaded by Hansha Chandrasekaran ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|3204883
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Blood brain barrier o Protects brain from general circulation o Astrocytes play an important role o Regions where blod brain barrier is open § Hypothalamus area – hormone diffusion § Capillaries around posterior pituitary – hormone diffusion § Pineal gland – pineal secretions into circulation § Choroid plexus – capillaries are very permeable Distinguish between white matter and gray matter: Gray matter o Cell bodies of neurons, neuroglia and unmyelinated axons White matter o Myelinated axons Describe the roles white and gray matter play: Gray matter o Signal integration and command initiation o Slower transport of neuronal signals White matter o Carries information from place to place o Rapid transport of neuronal signals Name the four lobes of the cerebrum and give their major functions: Frontal lobe o Responsible for advanced decision-making processes.
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