One way to explain this relationships and its effect on implementation of

One way to explain this relationships and its effect

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institutional activities depends on the relationships between and within institutions. One way to explain this relationships and its effect on implementation of institutional activities is the principal-agency theory holds that shirking is likely to occur when there is some disagreement between policy makers and the bureaucracy. Civilian political leaders (principals) delegate authority to the bureaucracy (agent) with the expectation that the agent does not move quickly enough to reflect the policy preferences of principal, the committee members could show their displeasure by cutting the funding of the institution. Leaders (the principals), through powers of appointment and the purse are in position to influence bureaucratic outputs. Guy, (2004) found that politicians wield considerable power in affecting bureaucratic outputs via the power of appointment. Calvert et al posits that the chief executive’s power of appointment and the threat of legislative sanctions influence bureaucratic output. In the Kenyan situation, there are some basic statutory requirements which must be complied with by all public Institutions. Technical Training Institutes are subject to such. Under the Income Tax Act of Kenya Cap 470, PAYE payments must be made on or before the 9 th day following the month of the deduction. The annual PAYE returns must be submitted on or before the 15 th February, of the succeeding year. The Institutions are also subject to the provisions of the VAT Act, Cap 160, with respect to any transactions they may undertake with VAT registered suppliers. Where such Institutions operate business for income generation, they must get a VAT registration certificate. They are also required to comply with all the provisions of the factories safety Act of Kenya, with regard to any workshops and laboratories. The TTIs must also comply with all the provisions of the Public Procurement Act of Kenya, Cap. This Act outlines all the procedures to be followed in all procurement activities for the Institutions. The Institutions must also submit all the statutory remissions and within the stipulated time. Such include NSSF, NHIF, and other deductions to the relevant Institutions. The implementations of the Performance Contracting Charter for TTIs have enshrined the commitment to realise the compliance with all statutory obligations. 26
2.5.4 Performance contracting and staff work environment One of the main services that an institution can provide to its employee, who are part of the internal customers, is a good and a conducive work environment. However, working in a stressful environment can be detrimental to mental and physical health in both the short- and the long-term. Poor levels of health are twice as high for those reporting high job stress compared to those with none. Rates of work-related stress are higher among women and in people working in large institutions, in managerial and professional occupations, and in public administration/health and social care/education (Siegrest J Benach J, McKnight A, Goldblatt P, Muntaner, 2010).

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