Cooked foods are more easily metabolized than raw foods therefore fewer

Cooked foods are more easily metabolized than raw

This preview shows page 12 - 14 out of 66 pages.

Cooking makes a difference. Cooked foods are more easily metabolized than raw foods, — therefore fewer calories are required in digesting them and more calories are available to the body. For example, - a well done steak provides more available calories than the raw meat. - raw and cooked carrots burned in a calorimeter would produce the same amount of energy. However, when it comes to the body, raw carrots are harder to break down than cooked ones —> more calories are used up to metabolize them —> they provide less calories than cooked ones 1 cup of orange juice: 108 Cal 1 square of fudge: 155 Cal 1 gram of dynamite: 155 Cal - how come? they produce the same amount of energy in a calorimeter, it’s just that in real life, the energy from dynamite is released all at once, whereas energy from fudge is slowly released - calories in fast food chains = energy produced in calorimeter — so really it’s an approximation Metabolism - Metabolism : The energy consumption by biochemical processes (— everything that goes on in our body requires energy) - Basal metabolic rate (BMR) : amount of energy that we would expend over a 24hr period, doing NOTHING = energy body expends just to stay alive - depends 1500-1700 calories per day Sedentary lifestyle - Men: 2200 calories - Women: 1800 calories - NOTE: we don't BURN calories, they are just a measure of energy — we burn FOOD - Calories “burned” during the performance of activities are determined by measuring the amount of O 2 inhaled and of CO 2 exhaled —> proportional to the burning of calories combustion process = food component + O 2 —> CO 2 + H 2 O - Energy released form several types of activities : Walking 5.6 km/h (3.5 mph): 4 Cal/min Dancing: 5.5 Cal/min Bicycling: 8 Cal/min 12 of 66
Image of page 12
Swimming: 11 Cal/min Running 16 km/h (10 mph): 16.5 Cal/min VIDEO 4 - Humans are biochemically individual: some people have more efficient metabolisms and therefore require fewer calories to keep their body functioning. Metabolic syndrome - It occurs when you have : More than 100 cm waist Triglyceride above 1.7 Mmol/L HDL under 1 Mmol/L BP over 130/85 Blood glucose over 6.1 Mmol/L Genetic causes - people who have it do better on a low carbohydrate diet than people who don’t — low carb diet works for everyone, it’s just more efficient with these people. GENETICS AND WEIGHT CONTROL - Is being overweight genetic too? - It is linked to it but diet is the trigger Ex: Pima Native Americans (live in Arizona, Southern US // + Mexico) Those who live in the US are mostly overweight, however those who live in Mexico are not, because they have a different healthier lifestyle (eat more veggies) - CCL: There is a genetic propensity for being overweight, but in order to bring it out, you have to have a poor diet — its generally a combination - Brown fat / white fat distribution in the body is genetically determined - Brown fat : more adept at metabolizing stored and fat and releasing energy than are other fat cells if you have more brown fat you are more likely to be lean because that fat is more adept at burning up stored fat and carbs e.g. : obese rodents have less brown fats = less adept at generating energy. They
Image of page 13
Image of page 14

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 66 pages?

  • Spring '11
  • Multiple
  • Nutrition

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture