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334). Charismatic authority is based on devotion to the exemplary character of a person, having an impact on people because of the personal appeal of the heart and mind when leaders speak with the ability to inspire people to do more than they would expect to do (pg.335). Leaders that love what they do have a charismatic attribute which makes them energetic, enthusiastic and attractive to others. They create an atmosphere of change and can easily articulate a vision with the ability to communicate complex ideas into clear and compelling ways that everyone from thetop to the bottom can easily understand.Charismatic leaders inspire followers with an abiding faith, where the faith itself becomesthe reward. For example, Martin Luther King’s “I have a dream” speech motivated followers by inspiring hope and faith in a better future (Shamir et al, 1994, pg. 25). Most researchers agree that charisma can be a curse as well as a blessing. Leaders such as Winston Churchhill, John F. Kennedy and Mohandas Gandhi exhibited tremendous charisma. Revolutionary military organizations are often based on the leader’s charisma, as are North American organizations led by charismatic people such as Oprah Winfrey who run several enterprises such as a magazine and television show (Daft, 2016, pg. 364). Leaders such as Adolf Hitler, Charles Manson and Idi Anim used charisma which wasn’t to the benefit of society (Daft, 1999). Charisma can also be used for self - serving purposes, which leads to deception, manipulation and exploitation of others (pg. 338). Servant Leadership
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BUSI610 Literature Review8Research has increased on this type of leadership attribute since 1999. When looking at servant leadership it is important to look at individual ethics because ethical behavior always involves and individual action, whether it is a decision to act or the failure to take action against wrongdoing by others (Daft, 2016, pg. 401). The main objective of the servant leadership is the fulfillment of others (pg. 374). The concept of this style of leadership began with Robert Greenleaf, when he proposed that leaders can operate from the basic precepts of servant leadership (pg. 375). Other researchers have identified different attributes to servant leadership, for example, ten characteristics were selected from Greenleaf’s writings as being critical to servant leadership:1.Listening – The servant leader doesn’t have answers; they ask questions and listen to fully understand the problems others may be facing, this is known to be one of the greatest gift of this leadership style (Daft, 1999; Joseph & Winston, 2005).2.Empathy – this attribute focuses on understanding others, by changing the perspective view and placing themselves in others shoes, this is how leaders empathize with others;3.Healing – servant leaders help others find the power of the human spirit and accept responsibility by being open and willing to share in the pain and difficulties of others.
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