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By a few months after birth, infants begin to use visual cues and an inner-ear mechanism to adjust their posture. To show the use of visual cues for balance, researchers had babies sit in a room with striped walls that moved. When the adults sit in such a room, they perceive themselves moving and adjust their postures accordingly. Infants did the same, which showed that they use vision to maintain upright posture. They do this even when blindfolded, which means they are using cues from their inner ear to maintain balance.Thelen and Ulrich (1991): Infants were placed on a treadmill and held upright by an adult. When the belt on the treadmill started to move, infants could either simply let both legs be dragged rearward by the belt or they could let their legs be dragged briefly, then move them forward together in a hopping motion. Many six and seven months old demonstrated the mature pattern of alternating steps on each leg. They even adjusted their speed when that of the treadmill was increased.Differentiating: mastery of component skills
Integration: combining them in proper sequence into a coherent, working whole.Fine-Motor SkillsFine-motor skills: associated with grasping, holding, and manipulating objects.Reach for objects by 4-monthsGrasp precisely by 7 monthsBabies are indifferent for handedness for the first year. By around the first birthday, they begin to use one hand more than the other.At roughly 5-6 months, infants can coordinate the motions of their hands.Theories of Cognitive DevelopmentChapter 6Jean PiagetA Swiss philosopher and lived until the 1980sConstructivist: children are active participants in their own development who systematically construct even more sophisticated understandings of their worlds.Maturationist: biologically prepared to be developed cognitively (i.e. not everything can be taught to children at any stage)Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentEquilibrium:When cognitive disequilibrium occurs, children reorganize their theories to return to a state of cognitive equilibriumIntelligence is an adaptive, basic life functionoThe goal is to reach cognitive equilibrium (i.e. modify the theory of the world to reach a state of equilibrium again)Kids are active, motivated learnersoDiscomfort is caused by Cognitive DisequilibriumoEquilibrium relives discomfort.Kids construct their own knowledge (i.e. theories and interpretations of the world around them)oBUT within the confines of what they already know (i.e. they would try to fit the unknown theory into something that they already know to achieve a state of equilibrium. If not, they can ask their parents for support)SchemesoMental structure that we create to represent an idea and interpret our experiences - a way of organizing knowledge.