3 consultation getting others involved to support

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3. Consultation – getting others involved to support one’s objectives. 4. Ingratiation – using flattery, creating goodwill, and being friendly prior to making a request.
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5. Personal Appeals – appealing to loyalty and friendship when asking for sth. 6. Exchange – offering favours or benefits in exchange for support. 7. Coalitions – getting the support of other people to provide backing when making a request. 8. Pressure – using demands, threats, and reminders to get someone to do sth. 9. Legitimacy – claiming the authority or right or make a request, or showing that it supports organizational goals or policies. Research showed that rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consultation tend to be the most effective; pressure is the least effective of the nine tactics. Political Skill – the ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one’s objectives. Job Content – the tasks and procedures necessary for carrying out a particular job. Job Context – the reason for doing the job; it reflects the organizational mission, objectives, and setting (also include the organization’s structure, culture, and reward systems). Four Conditions for Employees to have Empowerment and Ownership Mentality: 1. There must be a clear definition of the values and mission of the company; 2.
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