12 attenuation 24 axial resolution 4 basic

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1–2 attenuation, 2–4 axial resolution, 4 basic definitions, 1–5 basic instrumentation, 5–7 effects and artifacts, 16–21 frequency, 2–3 lateral resolution, 4 physics principles, 1–5 piezoelectric effect, 5 probe marker and screen marker, 8–9 reflection, 4 refraction, 4 resolution, 4–5 scanning modes, 14–16 scattering, 4 screen display conventions, 11–12 screen marker and probe marker, 8–9 transducer/probe types, 5–7 ultrasound wave generation, 5 understanding the formed image, 11–12 using the transducer/probe, 7–11 velocity, 1–3 wavelength, 2 gain function, 13 gallbladder ultrasound, 151–171 abnormal gallbladder images, 160–167 acute acalculous cholecystitis, 164–165 acute cholecystitis, 156 acute emphysematous cholecystitis, 165 anatomy of the gallbladder, 151–152 cholecystitis, 162–165 cholelithiasis, 16 , 160–162 focused questions, 151 gallstones, 160–162 literature review, 169–170 measurements, 156–157 mimics, 167–168 normal gallbladder images, 159 probe selection, 152 role in diagnosis of disease, 151 sample clinical protocol, 168 scanning tips, 158–159 sonographic Murphy sign, 156 technique, 152–159 trouble with gallbladder scanning, 158–159 views, 153–156 gastrointestinal ultrasound, 227–239 abnormal images, 236–238 anatomy, 232 appendicitis, 227 dirty shadowing, 231 focused questions, 232 hernia, 227–228 literature review, 238–239 new directions, 239 normal images, 236 perforated viscus/free air, 231 potential applications, 227 probe selection, 233 ring-down artifacts, 231 scanning tips, 235 small bowel obstruction, 229–230 technique, 233–235 views, 234–235 global cardiac function ultrasound evaluation, 81–84 grating lobe artifact, 20 gray scale of diagnostic ultrasonography, 1–2 , 14 head injury protocols pediatric patients, 253 hemopericardium cardiac ultrasound, 81 hemothorax, 19 hepatorenal recess, 28–29 hepatorenal recess view FAST exam, 33–35 hernia, 227–228 heterotopic pregnancy. See first trimester ultrasound hip effusions, 305–306 pediatric patients, 244–245 human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, 93 hydronephrosis, 141–143 hyperechoic areas, 1–2 hypoechoic areas, 1–2 hypotension evaluation, 255–266 aortic ultrasound, 261 B-lines, 262 cardiac tamponade, 256 cardiac ultrasound, 255–258 Index 341 Index
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hypotension evaluation (cont.) FAST exam, 261 fluid overload assessment, 262 general approach to the patient in shock, 255 hyperdynamic left ventricle, 258 hypodynamic left venticle, 258 inferior vena cava assessment, 258–261 literature review, 265–266 pleura and lung conditions, 262 pneumothorax evaluation, 262 right ventricular dilatation, 256–257 sample clinical protocol, 263–264 iliac arteries. See aortic ultrasound image screen display conventions, 11–12 understanding the formed image, 11–12 image adjustment, 12–14 focal depth, 12 focal zone, 12 gain function, 13 imaging depth, 12 near and far field gain control, 14 time gain compensation (TGC), 13–14 image artifacts. See artifacts Image Gently Alliance, 241 imaging depth, 12 incomplete abortion, 92 inevitable abortion, 92 inferior vena cava (IVC) assessment in hypotensive patient, 258–261 distinguishing from the aorta, 122–123 evaluation for dehydration in children, 245–246 ultrasound assessment, 258–261
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