e.Women were still campaigning for the right to vote in states and in federal elections during the Progressive era, so using the settlement house and women’s clubs as launching pads to obtain political office would have been a premature political step. Question 6a.The state laws passed in the wake of the tragic 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City addressed a broader scope of workplace health
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and safety issues than merely requiring fire escapes for businesses employing more than ten people. These new state laws established broader safety and health standards and enforced mechanisms for sweatshop workplaces by regulating the maximum hours and minimum health and safety conditions of sweatshop labor. b.Organized labor successfully opposed laws prohibiting women from working in the needle trades because unions viewed these women as skilled workers who could be unionized. Business owners also successfully opposed this proposed prohibition on women working in the needle trades because these women, mostly immigrants, were a key source of cheap labor for their clothing sweatshops. c.Correct answer. Following the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire in 1911 in New York City, many state legislatures across the country passed stronger laws regulating the maximum hours and minimum health and safety conditions of sweatshop conditions. In addition, by 1917, thirty states had enacted workers’ compensation laws, guaranteeing insurance benefits to workers injured in industrial accidents. d.State laws enabling municipalities to regulate buildings and land use through zoning were prompted by the encroachment of high density office and apartment skyscrapers on residential neighborhoods during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and not by industrial accidents, such as the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in New York City. e.The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire of 1911 did not prompt states, or the federal government for that matter, to pass laws guaranteeing the legal right of unions to organize and bargain collectively, a legal prerequisite for unions securing the right to raise safety concerns in the workplace. Unions did not acquire organizing and collective bargaining rights until the passage of the federal National (Wagner) Labor Relations Act of 1935.Question 7a.Correct answer. In Lochner v. New York (1905), the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated a New York state law establishing a ten hour day for bakers. The holding in Lochner represented a short-term setback for the efforts of progressives and labor advocates to institute maximum hour state laws for workers. The Court overruled its holding in Lochnerin 1917, when it upheld a similar ten-hour Oregon maximum hours working law for all factory workers.b.The holding in Lochner, overturning a New York state law establishing a ten-hour day for bakers, represented a successful legal effort by the business community to use the courts to overturn the legislative successes of progressives and labor advocates to achieve social reform.
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