Another country that has a visible existence of

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Another country that has a visible existence of Islamic banking at comprehensive level is Malaysia where both conventional and Islamic banking systems are working in a competitive environment. The share of Islamic banking operations in Malaysia has grown from a nil in 1983 to above 8 percent of total financial system in 2003. They have a plan to enhance this share to 20 percent by the year 2010. However, there are some conceptual differences in interpretation and Shariah position of various contracts like sale and purchase of debt instruments and grant of gifts on savings and financial papers. In Sudan, a system of Islamic banking and finance is in operation at national level. Like other Islamic banks around the world the banks in Sudan have been relying in the past on Murabaha financing. However, the share of Musharaka and Mudaraba operations is on increase and presently constitutes about 40 percent of total bank financing. Although the Islamic financial system has taken a good start in Sudan, significant problems still remain to be addressed. Like Sudan, Iran also switched over to Usury Free Banking at national level in March 1984. However, there are some conceptual differences between Islamic banking in Iran and the mainstream movement of Islamic banking and finance. Owing to the growing amount of capital availability with Islamic banks, the refining of Islamic financing techniques and the huge requirement of infrastructure development in Muslim countries there has been a large number of project finance deals particularly in the Middle East region. Islamic banks now participate in a wide financing domain stretching from simple Shariah-compliant retail products to highly complex structured finance and large-scale project lending. These projects, inter alia, include power stations, water plants, roads, bridges and other infrastructure projects. Bahrain is the leading centre for Islamic finance in the Middle East region. The establishment of the Prudential Information and Regulatory Framework for Islamic Banks (PIRI) by the BMA in conjunction with AAOIFI has gone a long way towards establishing a legal and regulatory framework to meet the specific risks inherent in Islamic financing structures. The BMA has quite recently signed MoU with the London Metal Exchange (LME) to pool assets to develop and promote Shariah compliant tradable instruments for Islamic banking industry. The arrangement is seen as a major boost for industry’s integration in the global financial system and should set the pace for commodity-trading environment in Bahrain. BMA has also finalized draft guidelines for issuance of Islamic bonds and securities from Bahrain. In May 03, the Liquidity Management Centre (LMC) launched its debut US$ 250 million Sukuk on behalf of the Government of Bahrain.
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