Becomes more active as a person views an unfamiliar

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becomes more active as a person views an unfamiliar person of another race (Hart & others, 2000) o Prejudicial reactions are not inevitable (Crandall & Eshelman, 2003; Kunda & Spencer, 2003) The motivation to avoid prejudice can lead people to modify their thoughts and actions Aware of the gap between how they should feel and how they do feel Self-conscious people will feel guilt and try to inhibit their prejudicial response (Bodenhausen & Macrae, 1998; Dasgupta & Rivera, 2006; Zuwerink & others, 1996)
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Even automatic prejudices subside (Devine & colleagues, 2005) When people’s motivation to avoid prejudice is internal (because prejudice is wrong) rather than external (because they don’t want others to think badly of them) What are the cognitive sources of prejudice? - A newer look at prejudice o Fueled by a surge in studies of stereotyping o Applies new research on social thinking - Stereotyped beliefs and prejudiced attitudes exist o Not only because of social conditioning o Because they enable people to displace hostilities o As by-products of normal thinking processes o As by-products of how we simplify our complex worlds - Categorization: Classifying people into groups o One way we simplify our environment is to categorize To organize the world by clustering objects into groups (Macrae & Bodenhausen, 2000) Think about them easily o If persons in a group share some similarities Knowing their group memberships can provide useful information with minimal effort (Macrae & others, 1994) o Stereotypes sometimes offer A beneficial ratio of information gained to effort expended (Sherman & others, 1998) Cognitive efficiency Energy-saving schemes for making speedy judgments and predicting how others will think and act o Spontaneous categorization We find it especially easy and efficient to rely on stereotypes when we are Pressed for time (Kaplan & others, 1993) Preoccupied (Gilbert & Hixon, 1991) Tired (Bodenhausen, 1990) Emotionally aroused (Esses & others, 1993; Stroessner & Mackie, 1993) Too young to appreciate diversity (Biernat, 1991) Experiments expose our spontaneous categorization of people by race Such categorization is not prejudice Provides a foundation for prejudice Necessary for prejudice Social identity theory implies that those who feel their social identity keenly
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Will concern themselves with correctly categorizing people as us to them Compared racially prejudiced people (who feel their racial identity keenly) with nonprejudiced people (Blascovich & others, 1997) Both groups were equally speedy at classifying white, black and gray ovals When shown faces whose race was somewhat ambiguous Prejudiced people took longer with more apparent concern for classifying people as either us or them Prejudice requires racial categorization o Perceived similarities and differences There is a strong tendency to see objects within a group as being more uniform than they really are Once we assign people to groups We are likely to exaggerate the similarities within the
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