The classroom environment particularly the degree to

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The classroom environment, particularly the degree to which it is nurturing or not, can also have significant impacts on student learning.
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Motivational and Affective factors
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7. Motivational and emotional influences on learning What and how much is learned is influenced by the learner’s motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual’s emotional states, beliefs, interests and goals, and habits of thinking. The rich internal world of thoughts, beliefs, goals, and expectations for success or failure can enhance or interfere with the learner’s quality of thinking and information processing. Students’ beliefs about themselves as learners and the nature of learning have a marked influence on motivation. Motivational and emotional factors also influence both the quality of thinking and information processing
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7. Motivational and emotional influences on learning Positive emotions, such as curiosity, generally enhance motivation and facilitate learning and performance. Mild anxiety can also enhance learning and performance by focusing the learner’s attention on a particular task. However, intense negative emotions (e.g. anxiety, panic, rage, insecurity) and related thoughts (e.g. worrying about competence, ruminating about failure, fearing punishment, ridicule, or stigmatizing labels) generally detract from motivation, interfere with learning, and contribute to low performance.
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8. Intrinsic motivation to learn The learner’s creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests, and providing for personal choice and control. Curiosity, flexible and insightful thinking, and creativity are major indicators of the learners’ intrinsic motivation to learn, which is in large part a function of meeting basic needs to be competent and to exercise personal control.
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8. Intrinsic motivation to learn Intrinsic motivation is facilitated on tasks that learners perceive as interesting and personally relevant and meaningful, appropriate in complexity and difficulty to the learners’ abilities, and on which they believe they can succeed. Intrinsic motivation is also facilitated on tasks that are comparable to real-world situations and meet needs for choice and control.
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8. Intrinsic motivation to learn Educators can encourage and support learners’ natural curiosity and motivation to learn by attending to individual differences in learners’ perceptions of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevance, and personal choice and control.
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9. Effects of motivation on effort Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills require extended learner effort and guided practice. Without learner’ motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort is unlikely without coercion. Effort is another major indicator of motivation to learn. The acquisition of complex knowledge and skills demands the investment of considerable learner energy and strategic effort, along with persistence over time.
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9. Effects of motivation on effort Educators need to be concerned with facilitating motivation by strategies that enhance learner effort and commitment to learning and to achieving high standards of comprehension and understanding. Effective strategies include purposeful learning activities that enhance positive emotions and intrinsic motivation to learn, and methods that increase learners’
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Developmental and Societal Factors
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