Commager Documents of American History pp 100 101 12 For further

Commager documents of american history pp 100 101 12

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207-16. 11. Commager, Documents of American History , pp. 100-101. 12. For further discussion see "The Poverty of Philosophy" and "The Communist Manifesto" by Marx, reprinted in Karl Marx: Selected Writings , edited by David McLellan, especially pp. 215 and 246. Paul Ramsey provides an extended discussion of revolution in War and the Christian Conscience , Chapter 6, "Justifiable Revolution," and in The Just War , p. 189, from which the quotation in the text is cited. Here Ramsey is quoting from Y.A. Korovin, et. al., Academy of Sciences of U.S.S.R., International law (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House), p. 402. Support of liberation movements is fundamental to the "Brezhnev Doctrine and the 1977 Soviet Constitution." 13. See Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars , Chapter 6, "Interventions." 14. Ibid., p. 74. 15. Ibid., p. 81. D -14
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16. See for example James Turner Johnson, "What Guidance can Just-War Tradition Provide for Contemporary Moral Thought About War," New Catholic World 226 (March-April 1982):83. 17. Childress, "Just-War Theories," p. 436. Ramsey and Johnson generally concur with Childress. 18. James T. Johnson, personal interview, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, 9 April 1982. See also "Just War Theory: What's the Use?," Worldview 19 (July-August 1976). 19. Personal Interview, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 7 February 1981. 20. Ramsey, The Just War , p. 143. 21. Ramsey, War and the Christian Conscience , pp. 43-44. 22. Ibid., p. 43. 23. See Johnson, "Just War Theory: What's the Use?", p. 43. 24. Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars , p. 122. 25. Ibid., p. 123. 26. Ibid. 27. Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971), p. 379. 28. Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars , p. 123. 29. See Childress, "Just-War Theories," pp. 438-39. 30. See U.S. Army Field Manual 27-10: The Law of Land Warfare, 15 July 1956, p. 15. This law is a Hague Convention protocol. 31. Potter, "The Moral Logic of War," p. 219. 32. Johnson, "Toward Reconstructing The Jus Ad Bellum," The Monist 57 (October 1973):487, note 46. 33. Potter, War and Moral Discourse , p. 53. 34. Connell, "Is the H-bomb Right or Wrong," The Sign (March 1950): 11-13; quoted from Ramsey, War and The Christian Conscience , p. 78. 35. Dyck, "Ethical Bases of the Military Profession," p. 44. D -15
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36. See Johnson, Just War Tradition , pp. 204f. Johnson also discusses here the often noted difficulty in proportionality and utilitarian theory in general of accurate calculation of effects, or end results. 37. Ramsey, The Just War , p. 195. 38. Potter, "The Moral Logic of War," p. 219. 39. See U.S. Army Field Manual 100-1: The Army, 14 August 1981, p. 15. 40. See U.S. Army Field Manual 27-10: The Law of Land Warfare, passim. 41. Ramsey believes that questions of justice take precedence. Therefore, he emphasizes that the principle of protecting the innocent, which is manifested in the criteria of just cause and discrimination, should be considered prior to discussions of effects. That is, a nation should determine if it is "right" to resort to war or use certain weapons in the protection of the innocent from aggression before asking if these actions are proportionate responses. This does not mean for Ramsey that proportionality may not rule out these proposed actions. See Ramsey, War and The Christian Conscience , Chapter One, and pp. 143-45, 154, 351, passim; Ramsey, The Just
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