African American women, who made up the vast majority of domestic servants, also suffered--- Thousands of unemployed workers gathered before the White House on March 6, 1930, to protest for better unemployment policies.---Unemployed worker, 1930675massive unemployment. Without regular work, many would stand on street corners and try to obtain work as maids. Two black women, Ella Baker and Marvel Cooke, referred to this method of hiring as the “Bronx Slave
Market.” In an investigative article they wrote for The Crisis, they described a typical scene:“Rain or shine, cold or hot, you will find them there—Negro women, old and young—sometimes bedraggled, sometimes neatly dressed.. . waiting expectantly for Bronx housewives to buy their strength and energy.”Since many employers could hire women more cheaply than men, the percentage of women in the work force actually increased in the l930s. Most were employed as office workers or domestic servants. But as the percentage of women in the work force rose overall, the percentage of employed African American women actually fell because of increased competition in domestic and agricultural work.Some unemployed workers took to selling apples on the street, where on a good day a seller might earn $1.15, causing President Hoover to claim, “Many people have left their jobs for the more profitable one of selling apples.” But few people in the depression had any choice over how or where they worked. Some even hitchhiked or hopped freight trains across the country to find jobs.During the depression one fourth of the work force lost their jobs. Manyhad to seek work wherever they could find it.LIFE IN THE CITYThe impact of the depression spread all across America, hitting people in cities and on farms and disrupting family life. Some of the most-lasting images of the period came from urban America, as the depression hit many cities hard. During the early 1930s the federal government did little to aid local communities.City governments, religious groups like the Salvation Army, and charitable organizations such as the Red Cross tried to take on the burden of providing direct relief to the needy. Neighbors also helped one another. One African American woman told a visitor: “My neighbors helps me, by
bringin’ me a little to eat, when they knows I ain’t got nothin’ in the house to cook.”Mexican American communities formed mutualistas, or mutual-aid societies,to help local residents. Some Chinese AmericanUnemployment ReliefDOUBLE TROUBLE In the early 1930s a disastrous drought struck of the Great Plains, adding to the difficulties caused by the depression.PLACE Which state had the highest percentage of its people receiving unemployment?--- In the I 930s many couples participated in dance marathons to win money. Some marathons would last for days, until all but one couple dropped from exhaustion.676--- Shantytowns appeared outside many towns and cities during the early I 930s. Shown here is a Hooverville in New York City.communities set out open barrels of rice so that people could draw from them privately, without asking for handouts. Harlem residents organized
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- Spring '16
- Dr Wong
- Great Depression, Wall Street Crash of 1929