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trail to a flood of emigrants headed west by 1847 – 49 and thereafter well into the later 1880’s. Sand Creek Massacre (1864)Happened on November 29, 1864 when a 700 – man army of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapoho in southeastern Colorado. They killed and mutilated 100-163 Indians and about 2/3 were women and children. On February 18 1861 six chiefs of the Southern Cheyenne and 4 of the Arapaho signed the Treaty of Fort Wise, however some bands of the Cheyenne were angry at the chiefs who signed the treaty. They disavowed the treaty and refused to abide by its constraints. - Settlers attacked indians on land that the indians had received through the Treaty of Fort Wise. The Sand Creek River was part of the land they received and that’s where the attack occurred. Peace Policy (1868)At the end of 1860’s President Ulysses S. Grant suggested a “Peace Policy” as a way to end the current conflict. The policy was made up of a reorganization of the Indian Service, and the purpose was to move Indian Tribes to parcels of land allotted to them for them to move
and inhabit. Also, the policy said that there needs to be a government system to monitor Indian agencies and they need to implement government officials, nominated by churches to oversee the Indian agencies on reservations. - South Dakota, Sioux indians- Red cloud - war leader who was member of Sioux (among factors that lead to the Peace Policy)Placer miningPlacer mining is the mining that has been found in deposits in river beds in dust for or in nuggets. It was done by individual prospectors and it began by starting with cradle mining. Also the Long Tom is a form of cradle mining and it works by pouring water down a long box like object in order to filter out the gold.**Not sure how it is related to hydraulic mining but I think hydraulic mining is a type of placer miningHydraulic mining involves using hoses at hillside, where water and dirt wash down and gold is captured in a device. However, it is bad for the environment because the dirt is power washed and creates man made mudslides. Red Cloud1822-1909Red Cloud was a war leader who was a member of the Lakota (Sioux). He was among the factors leading to the “Peace Policy.” From 1866-1868 Red Cloud led a successful campaign called “Red Cloud’s War,” over Powder River County in northeastern Wyoming and Montana. Comstock Lode (1859)Comstock Lode was the first major discovery of silver ore found in Virginia City, Nevada. The mining was different in Nevada than in CA, silver in Nevada was found by doing underground mining. After the discovery was made public in 1859, prospectors rushed to the area and scrambled to stake their claims. Also known for the advances in mining technology that it started and the large fortunes that were acquired, because a total load was 400 million dollars.