Visual imagery creating a visual image to accompany

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Visual Imagery: Creating a visual image to accompany the information to be remembered - Dual Coding Theory: semantic and visual; two codes are better than one - Self-referent Coding: making material personally meaningful How Best to Encode Information?
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- Understand it; process on a deeper level - Elaborate on it; make it meaningful, look for examples - Visualize it; attach an image to it—dual coding - Personalize it; ask how does it apply to you Chapter 12: Motivation Motivation Defining Motivation o A process within a person or animal that causes an organism to MOVE Toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation o Approach Avoidance Conflict (google this??) o Include Biological Drives, but cognitive factors also play a large role in humans Ex: Desire to reach a certain goal o An inferred process within a person or animal that causes movement toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation Types of Motivation o Intrinsic Motivation Is the desire to do something for its own sake or for the pleasure that the activity itself brings The pursuit of an activity for its own sake Ex: o A runner is motivated to exercise because it makes her feel good and energized o Extrinsic Motivation IS the desire to do something for external rewards The pursuit of an activity for external rewards, such as money or fame Ex: o Money, good grades, etc o Whether your motives are intrinsic or extrinsic affects: How readily you meet your goals How satisfied meeting them can make you feel Motivation of Eating o At one time, psychologists thought that being overweight was a sign of emotional disturbance o If you were overweight, it was because you: Hated your mother Feared intimacy Were trying to fill an emotional hole in your psyche o Now we KNOW: Hunger, weight, and eating are regulated by: The number of fat cells (fixed for a given person) A set of bodily mechanisms Everyone has a genetically influenced basal metabolic rate (BMR, the rate at which the body burns calories)
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BMR declines with ae Weight has a high heritability factor (0.4 to 0.7) Set Point Theory o Changes in metabolic rate keep people close to their genetically influence set point o May explain why dieters have a hard time keeping lost weight off, AND why thing people have trouble keeping weight on o When you lose weight – the metabolic rate decreases o When you gain weight – your metabolic rate increases Genes and Weight o Genes Influence BMR Body Shape Number of Fat cells Distribution of Fat Amount of Brown Fat Type of fat that burns excess energy for heat Usually in the back region under skin Higher amount in infants Recent Research: Cold may stimulate brown Fat production o Hormones Involved Leptin Enables the hypothalamus to regulate appetite and metabolism Reduces Hunger Stored and secreted by fat cells and the master regulator of hunger
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