DSST Fundamentals of counseling

Bf skinner is thought to be the founder of operant

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BF Skinner is thought to be the founder of operant conditioning methods. Skinner developed the Skinner box where a pigeon would peck at a light key that was either green or red. With the experimenter controlling the reinforcement (food) the pigeon could be taught to pick only the red or green key if that was the color that resulted in food being given. Skinner epitomized the behaviorist approach more than any other psychologist. B.F. Skinner was the leading exponent of the school of psychology known as behaviorism, which explains the behavior of humans and other animals in terms of the physiological responses of the organism to external stimuli. Like other behaviorists, he rejected unobservable phenomena of the sort that other forms of psychology, particularly psychoanalysis, had studied, concerning himself only with patterns of responses to rewards and stimuli Skinner used the term operant to refer to behavior that an organism may use to operate on its environment. Operants, or behaviors used to operate on an environment, are said to be controlled by their consequences-they will maintain or increase their rate if they are reinforced; they will decrease their rate if they are not reinforced or if they are punished. Social Learning theory focused on the study of covert behaviors that are unobservable to other people. These behaviors include such things as physical reactions (blood pressure, heart rate), thinking (remembering,
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imagining), and feeling (sad, happy) and social learning theory emphasizes the importance of thoughts and images on psychological functioning. Albert Bandura’s approach to learning is also cognitive in nature, but his added a decidedly social aspect to the process and for that reason is often referred to as the social learning theory. The central idea of Bandura's theory is that learning takes place through the observation and the imitation of models. What makes social learning theory social is the notion that we often learn from others. Bandura's social cognitive theory emphasized both the social origins of thoughts and actions as well as the human capacity for self regulation. Social cognitive theory is also known as social learning theory. Bandura indicated that we observe both the actions of others as well as the consequences of those actions. And that based on those observations we form rules of behavior for specific situations which we then apply to regulate our own actions. In his social cognitive theory, Bandura emphasized the importance of self -direction and motivation. Bandura believed it was important for students to take responsibility for their own learning. Bandura created the Social Learning theory in the 1960’s. Albert Bandura created a triad of interactions made up of the environment, personal factors, and behaviors. According to Bandura, these factors operate interactively and people learn by observing how others behave in similar situations.
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