Yellowness of Butter o Feed of cows adjusted In summer cows eat grass outside

Yellowness of butter o feed of cows adjusted in

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Yellowness of Butter o Feed of cows adjusted In summer, cows eat grass outside -> take enough beta-carotene -> butter is very yellow In winter, cows are fed hay -> no colour -> white butter (people want yellow butter) During winter, colour is added by feeding the cows with animal feed rick in beta- carotene - Egg York o Feed the chicken with food rich in beta-carotene to get very yellow chicken 6.2.3: - Cochineal red o Natural food colour o From cochineal insect (crush insects after drying) Grows on cactus Female is only used (no colouring in male) -> colouring in eggs of the female o Red dye (salami, red ice creams/drinks) 6.2.4: 6.2.5:
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- Synthetic colours are also known as Coal Tar Dyes, because they were initially they were extracted from coal tar - Synthetic colours are intense - Synthetic colours are “certified” o Means the manufacturing process has been checked, and it gives what is expected - Citrus red #2 o Restricted Can be used in food but under specific condition Colour skin of oranges Some orange stays green when it is ripe due to high chlorophyll content When orange skin is dyed, it must label ‘colour added’ which consumers do not favour o Not a success due because people don’t buy it 6.2.6: - Concerns of synthetic dyes o In 1973, Dr. Ben F. Feingold Came up with theory that food dyes and salicylate present naturally in some foods are associated with hyperactivity in children Different studies on this topic shows controversial result -> difficult to judge the truth o Stay away from these synthetic food dyes because they are usually in foods of poor nutritional value. 6.2.7: - Yellow #5 ( Tartrazine ) o Must be labeled Some people suffer from adverse or allergic reaction to yellow #5 - Red #2 ( Amaranth ) o Banned in US but not in Canada - Red #40 ( Allura Red ) o Was once allowed in US but banned in Canada o Now allowed in both countries - Red #3 o Potentially causing cancer in testing animals Not sure if it is human carcinogenic
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Only showed carcinogenic effect in male rats 6.2.8: - It is the dose that makes the poison o If water is left in the bottle for long time, antimony will leach out, but in extremely small amount. o Even water is toxic in high dosage -> osmosis in cells 6.2.9: - Nitrite (in cure meat) o Sodium nitrite as preservative o Nitrite also associates with tangy taste o Affect colour Colour of freshly cut meat is bluish red due to presence of myoglobin (Fe +2 ) Myoglobin is closely related to hemoglobin Myoglobin, Mb(Fe 2+ ), reacts with oxygen to form oxymyoglobin , Mb(Fe +2 )O 2 . o Oxymyoglobin is bright red colour After a while, whether oxygen is present or not , Fe 2+ is oxidized to Fe +3 o Now, deoxy myoglobin , Mb(Fe 3+ ), has brownish colour o People don’t buy brown meat -> therefore nitrite is added for colour In presence of nitrite , myoglobin is converted to nitrosomyoglobin, Mb(Fe +2 )NO This gives pink colour for ham or hot dog o Nitrite is converted into nitrosamine in body Nitrosamine is known animal carcinogen
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