D laser bleaching and washing a laser an acronym for

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people (Levistrauss N.D.). Laser bleaching and washing A laser (an acronym for light ampli fi cation by stimulated emission of radiation) used in the industries refers to an instrument that generates light through an optical ampli fi cation process in accordance with the electromagnetic radiation s stimulated emission (Hecht 2005 ). A laser instrument generates an extreme amount of heat to melt a small focused area for changing a material s appearance (Hecht 2005 ). In the textile industry, the CO 2 laser instrument is commonly used, due to its capabilities in creating designed surface patterns or effects more precisely and within a short time with minimal damage to the textile properties (Bertolotti 2015 ). As an alternative to synthetic bleaching and washing methods, apparel designers can use laser technology to execute elaborate regional effects, such as the worn-out look, whiskers, and design motifs/patterns, without using water and chemicals. The use of lasers engineered by computer systems allows designers to create more Environmental Sustainability in the Textile Industry 35
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accurate and repeatable bleached and washed effects (Apparel 2014 ). One of the shortcomings of the laser method is the high cost for an individual piece of equipment s operation, and side by side at each piece, it provides limited ef fi - ciencies for overall bleaching (Apparel 2014 ). Ozone bleaching and fi nishing The use of ozone technology allows textile companies to create natural beaching effects by using ozone gas instead of chemicals (Apparel 2014 ; Khalil 2015 ). In ozone fi nishing methods, oxygen (O 2 ) is changed to ozone gas (O 3 ) through a series of processes such as dampening, sun exposure, and rinsing of denim garments; after that, O 3 is changed back to ordinary, harmless oxygen before emission into the environment (Apparel 2014 ). Ozone technology is capable of reducing the con- sumption of water, energy, and dyestuffs (e.g., chemical, enzyme, and stone). For instance, Levi s is currently a leader of ozone technology adoption in the textile industry (Elks 2014 ). Ozone requires two to three times the washing processes only, while traditional chemical washing necessitates six to seven times (Khalil 2015 ). Additionally, ozone takes 15 min for bleaching, while traditional chemical methods require 30 45 minutes (Apparel 2014 ; Khalil 2015 ). Thus, it contributes substan- tially to reducing hazardous environmental impacts compared to traditional wet, chemical bleaching, and fi nishing processes. Digital printing Due to the fact that textile printing embraces non-eco-friendly aspects requiring a large amount of raw materials, energy, and generating production waste, digital printing technology emerged as an alternative to conduct printing while reducing harmful wastes to the environment (Oecotextiles 2012a ). Digital printing allows multiple bene fi ts to the textile companies and environmental protection such as reduced material and energy usage, enhanced process ef fi ciency, and a longer equipment life span (Boyd 2014 ; SPGprint N.D.). More speci fi cally, a digital
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