Table 5. Effects of exercise on angiogenesis and angiogenic factors Effect of Exercise on Pro-Angiogenic Factors Effect of Exercise on Anti-Angiogenic Factors Effect of Exercise on Net-Angiogenesis Change B. Hoier Study ( 43 ) Increased N/A Increased Duggan C. Study ( 44 ) No change Decreased Increased Emma Harris Study ( 45 ) No change N/A N/A Fares Gouzi Study ( 46 ) No change Decreased Increased Jalees Rehman Increased N/A Increased
Study ( 47 ) Kamal Ranjbar Study ( 48 ) Decreased N/A N/A Kasey A. Lansford Study ( 49 ) Decreased N/A N/A Landers-Ramos Study ( 50 ) Increased N/A N/A Patrick Wahl Study ( 51 ) Increased N/A N/A R. Grace Walton Study ( 52 ) No change N/A Increased Timothy P. Gavin Study ( 53 ) Increased N/A Increased W Schuyler Jones Study ( 54 ) No change N/A Increased Notes: Pro-angiogenic factors in studies contain biological macro-molecules and cells including: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), osteopontin (OPN), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 ), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), matrix metaloproteinases (MMP), cd14, cd31, cd3 Anti-angiogenic factors in studies contain biological macro-molecules including Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), TSP-1, VEGF165b Discussion With the widespread increase of morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients, more importance has been placed on preventing the disease and finding better ways to manage it. One of the most commonly given adjunct treatments is a change in lifestyle, including modifications to diet, alcohol intake, smoking exposure, and exercise regimen. Numerous studies have shown evidence which supports the use of increased physical activity (1) to decrease and control the development of hypertension (58) . In order to understand multifactorial pathways for how exercise reduces the risk of and protects against cardiovascular disease, parameters such as cardiovascular efficiency, oxygen absorption, blood vessel pressures and angiogenesis were evaluated. These were used to compare the efficiency of high intensity training (at >90% Vo2 max) versus aerobic exercise (at <66%Vo2 max),
It was noted on this study that the mean values for the effect of HIIT on VO2 max, gradually increased per number of sessions completed over the long term. HIIT values also showed systolic and diastolic blood pressure to gradually decrease per number of sessions performed in the different groups, to a greater extent than aerobic exercise with a p<0.01, providing a statistical significance that rejects the null hypothesis. The pooled data suggests to the authors that increasing the HIIT workout over longer periods of time along with increasing the number of sessions performed yielded desirable results on reducing systolic and diastolic BP, to a greater extent than continuous aerobic exercise performed over a long term.
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- Fall '19
- High-intensity interval training