Early food-producing societies used megaliths (big stones) to construct burial chambers and calendar circles and to aid in astronomical observations. 00. The expansion of food-producing societies may be reflected in the patterns in which the Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, and Afro-Asiatic language groups are dispersed around the Eastern Hemisphere.
IV0. Mesopotamia 0. Settled Agriculture in an Unstable Landscape 00. Mesopotamia is the alluvial plain area alongside and between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The area is a difficult environment for agriculture because there is little rainfall, the rivers flood at the wrong time for grain agriculture, and the rivers change course unpredictably. 00. Mesopotamia does have a warm climate and good soil. By 4000 B . C . E ., farmers were using cattle-pulled plows and a sort of planter to cultivate barley. Just after 3000 B . C . E ., they began constructing irrigation canals to bring water to fields farther away from the rivers. 00. Other crops and natural resources of the area included date palms, vegetables, reeds and fish, and fallow land for grazing goats and sheep. Draft animals included cattle and donkeys and, later (second millennium B . C . E .), camels and horses. The area has no significant wood, stone, or metal resources. Mesopotamia had an abundance of mud.
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