People will do this until they win or run out of money Regardless of the

People will do this until they win or run out of

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comes.  People will do this until they win or run out of  money. *Regardless of the schedule of reinforcement one uses,  two factors contribute to effectiveness:
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1.  Timing:  a reinforcer should be given as immediately  as possible after the desired behavior.  Especially true  with pets and small children. 2. Reinforce only the desired behavior.  Do not give the  treat to the pet that has not really done the trick. Punishment: the opposite of reinforcement.  It follows a response and  causes that response to be less likely to happen again.    Punishment  weakens responses . Reinforcement (whether positive or negative)  strengthens the response. ) Positive reinforcement:   reinforcing a response by the   addition of a pleasurable consequence.   Example:  A waiter tries to smile and be pleasant because  that seems to lead to bigger tips. Negative reinforcement :  reinforcing  a response by the  removal or escape from an unpleasant consequence. Example:  Arnie’s dad nags him to wash his car.  Arnie  washes the car to avoid his dad’s nagging. 2 Kinds of Punishment: 1. Punishment by Application:  spanking, scolding, etc. 2. Punishment by Removal:  Often confused with  negative reinforcement.  Behavior is punished by the 
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removal of something pleasurable or desired after the  behavior occurs.  Example:  punishing aggressive  behavior by taking away television privileges, fining  someone for breaking the law (taking away money.) Problems with Punishment: Getting rid of a response that is well established is not that easy.  Many times, punishment only serves to temporarily  suppress or inhibit a behavior until enough time has  passed.   Example:  punishing a child’s behavior doesn’t always  eliminate the behavior completely.  The punishment is  forgotten and the “bad” behavior occurs again in a  spontaneous recovery of the old and pleasurable  behavior. Punishment by application does do one thing well:  it stops the behavior immediately.  Maybe not permanently, but it  does stop it. In the case in which a child might be doing something  dangerous or self-injurious, this kind of punishment is  sometimes more acceptable. Drawbacks to Punishment:
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1.  may cause a child or animal to avoid the punisher  instead of the behavior. 2.  may encourage lying to avoid punishment. 3.  creates fear and anxiety. 4.  hitting provides a successful model for aggression.
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