comes. People will do this until they win or run out of money.*Regardless of the schedule of reinforcement one uses, two factors contribute to effectiveness:
1. Timing: a reinforcer should be given as immediately as possible after the desired behavior. Especially true with pets and small children.2.Reinforce only the desired behavior. Do not give the treat to the pet that has not really done the trick.Punishment:the opposite of reinforcement. It follows a response and causes that response to be less likely to happen again. Punishment weakens responses.Reinforcement (whether positive or negative) strengthensthe response.)Positive reinforcement: reinforcing a response by the addition of a pleasurable consequence. Example: A waiter tries to smile and be pleasant because that seems to lead to bigger tips.Negative reinforcement: reinforcing a response by the removal or escape from an unpleasant consequence.Example: Arnie’s dad nags him to wash his car. Arnie washes the car to avoid his dad’s nagging.2 Kinds of Punishment:1.Punishment by Application: spanking, scolding, etc.2.Punishment by Removal: Often confused with negative reinforcement. Behavior is punished by the
removal of something pleasurable or desired after the behavior occurs. Example: punishing aggressive behavior by taking away television privileges, fining someone for breaking the law (taking away money.)Problems with Punishment:Getting rid of a response that is well established is not thateasy. Many times, punishment only serves to temporarily suppress or inhibit a behavior until enough time has passed. Example: punishing a child’s behavior doesn’t always eliminate the behavior completely. The punishment is forgotten and the “bad” behavior occurs again in a spontaneous recovery of the old and pleasurable behavior.Punishment by application does do one thing well: it stopsthe behavior immediately. Maybe not permanently, but it does stop it.In the case in which a child might be doing something dangerous or self-injurious, this kind of punishment is sometimes more acceptable.Drawbacks to Punishment:
1. may cause a child or animal to avoid the punisher instead of the behavior.2. may encourage lying to avoid punishment.3. creates fear and anxiety.4. hitting provides a successful model for aggression.