But the 50’s sitcom that really broke the mold and stood apart from the crows was I Love Lucy - Debuted on CBS in 1951, ran for 10 years - Created by Desilu (Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz’s production company) - Desilu is one of the first production companies to pioneer 3-camera set up, assisted by former Ufa cameraman and DP of Metropolis, Karl Freund
- Used sponsor’s insistence, it was shot on 35mm film and edited instead of aired live - beginning the transition for live to production to filmed production - 3 camera setup of live recording coupled with the freedom of postproduction resulted in more variety News Network news like most other network programs were presented by sponsors and credited as such. Like NBC’s early evening news program called Camel News - 15 minute news broadcasts and newsreels at NBC were quickly countered by 45 minute long news program at CBS - One of the pioneers in this regard was Edward R. Murrow - Murrow was given his own weekly news program on CBS - See it Now - TV Criticism & Reform - The “Quiz Show Scandal” of 1959 - discovery that TV quiz shows (game shows & in particular the show Twenty One ) were being rigged by ad sponsors - Leads NBC chief executive Pat Weaver to replace single sponsor system with spot ads from multiple sponsors - Networks consolidate power since a single sponsor/advertiser can no longer dictate conditions of production - But TV industry comes under scrutiny of FCC - The FCC’s Analysis - Networks criticized for not producing more serious, educational content - Debate arises over television’s public service standards - The rise of network system met with reluctance by new FCC head and activist Newton Minow - Reforms - 1961: Minow delivers famous “vast wasteland” speech at National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) convention - Criticizes the mindless, violent programming on TV - Promises to increase educational television through expansion of educational television through expansion of educational stations Progress and Consequences - 1962: 3 networks produce close to 400 documentary programs - 1963: NBC and CBS expand nightly news to hour long format - 1963: National Educational Television (NET) network formed as precursor to PBS begins broadcasting educational programs Narrative Art Cinema and La Nouvelle Vague (The French New Wave) Introduction - In post WWII Europe (especially France) film is validated as serious high art - In film journals and film festivals - 1945-1959 the number of international film festivals spring up following the model of Venice Film Festival (started 1932)
Auteur Theory - Begins with Aexandre Asrtruc and his essay “the Birth of a New Avante-Garde: The Camera Stylo” (1948) - Cinema is equal to painting or literature - Argues: Cinema is equal to painting or literature. Screenwriter and director should be one and same. Filmmaker as author (auteur) of film. “Auteur writes with a camera as a writer writes with a pen” Cinephelia and Cahiers du Cinema - Henry Langiois’s Cinematheque Francise becomes hot spot for a group of young men who are obsessed with the cinema -
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- Spring '08
- History of film, Cinema of the United States, films, Experimental film, dull girl