At all at the town of new echota in the said cherokee

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at all, at the town of New Echota, in the said Cherokeenation, out of the jurisdiction of this court, and not in thecounty Gwinnett, or elsewhere, within the jurisdiction ofthis court: and this defendant saith, that he is a citizen ofthe state of Vermont, one of the United States of America,and that he entered the aforesaid Cherokee nation in thecapacity of a duly authorised missionary of the AmericanBoard of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, under theauthority of the president of the United States, and hasnot since been required by him to leave it: that he was,at the time of his arrest, engaged in preaching the gospelto the Cherokee Indians, and in translating the sacredscriptures into their language, with the permission andapproval of the said Cherokee nation, and in accordancewith the humane policy of the government of the UnitedStates for the civilization and improvement of the Indians;and that his residence there, for this purpose, is theresidence charged in the aforesaid indictment; and thisdefendant further saith, that this prosecution the stateof Georgia ought not to have or maintain, because, hesaith, that several treaties have, from time to time, beenentered into between the United States and the Cherokeenation of Indians, to wit, at Hopewell, on the 28th dayof November 1785; at Holston, on the 2d day of July1791; at Philadelphia, on the 26th day of June 1794; atTellico, on the 2d day of October 1798; at Tellico, on the24th day of October 1804; at Tellico, on the 25th day ofOctober 1805; at Tellico, on the 27th day of October 1805;at Washington city, on the 7th day of January 1805; atWashington city, on the 22d day of March 1816; at theChickasaw Council House, on the 14th day of September1816; at the Cherokee Agency, on the 8th day of July1817; and at Washington city, on the 27th day of February
Worcester v. State of Ga., 31 U.S. 515 (1832)6 Pet. 515, 8 L.Ed. 483© 2018 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.171819: all which treaties have been duly ratified by thesenate of the United States of America; and, by whichtreaties, the United States of America acknowledge thesaid Cherokee nation to be a sovereign nation, authorisedto govern themselves, and all persons who have settledwithin their territory, free from any right of legislativeinterference by the several states composing *539theUnited States of America, in reference to acts done withintheir own territory; and, by which treaties, the whole of theterritory now occcupied by the Cherokee nation, on theeast of the Mississippi, has been solemnly guarantied tothem; all of which treaties are existing treaties at this day,and in full force. By these treaties, and particularly by thetreaties of Hopewell and Holston, the aforesaid territory isacknowledged to lie without the jurisdiction of the severalstates composing the union of the United States; and, it isthereby specially stipulated, that the citizens of the UnitedStates shall not enter the aforesaid territory, even on avisit, without a passport from the governor of a state, or

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