part of the personality depression link may be due to shared etiology unlike that depressive episodes yield enduring personality changes… but, personality may affect course of depression and its treatment… as depression gets better symptoms change, may respond differently to treatment Personality and treatment of depression: high neuroticism may indicate better response to medication (levels of serotonin); high agreeableness may indicate better response to psychotherapy (interacting
with other people, more inclined to get along better with other people; high extraversion may indicate better response to treatment overall (more social support); high conscientiousness and high openness may indicate better overall response (more likely to adhere to a regimen, not miss a session; open to treatment and have a better outcome as a result) Psychosis: not a mental illness, but psychotic symptoms composite of presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech (all over the place, hard to follow the logic), or disorganized behaviour (or even, catatonic behaviour rigid body) delusions beliefs/thoughts that involve misinterpretations of perceptions or experiences of reality (eg paranoia); hallucinations sensory experiences that occur in the absence of stimulation from the environment (eg. Hearing voices, feeling sensations on your body, foul/bitter taste in the mouth, noxious or pungent odours auditory and visual most common) Neuroticism and psychosis: 4000 people with no psychosis history (does neuroticism predict the onset of psychosis); main finding neuroticism and self esteem predicted first ever onset of psychotic symptoms 3 years later; neuroticism was the strongest predictor; implications neuroticism may increase risk for psychotic disorders; one possible pathway leading from neuroticism to psychosis may be due to specific ways of thinking (egg. Belief re uncontrollability of life events) Eating disorders (ED): anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa Anorexia nervosa: persistent restriction of energy intake which yields significantly low body weight (relative to one’s age, sex, developmental trajectory and physical health) intense fear of gaining weight/becoming obese or enduring behaviour that impacts weight gain (even in presence of low body weight) disturbance in how one views weight/body shape, verly low self evaluation based on weight, denial/lack of recognition of the seriousness of one’s low body weight (highest mortality rate because may develop depression as well as organ failure due to toll on body) Bulimia nervosa: recurrent binge eating episodes which include a) eating high quantities in short time interval (more than most wold eat in 2 hrs) b) sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (cant stop themselves from starting or stoping) recurrent compensatory behaviour in order to prevent weight gain, due to negative feelings (eg. Induced vomiting, laxative misuse, fasting, excessive exercise)
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