On the origin of Eukaryotes.pdf

And most surprising of all woese and his colleagues

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living things: eukaryotes, bacteria, and a group they dubbed archaea. And most surprising of all, Woese and his colleagues found that archaea were more closely related to eukaryotes than they were to bacteria. Close relationship or distant relationships can be told looking at the 16s rRNA. 2. What is the Archezoa hypothesis? Has it been well supported with data? According to his so-called archezoa hypothesis, mitochondria first evolved only after eukaryotes had already evolved a nucleus, a cellular skeleton, and many other distinctively eukaryotic features. But a closer look at mitochondria-free eukaryotes raised doubts about the archezoa hypothesis. In the 1970s, Miklós Müller of the Rockefeller University in New York City and his colleagues discovered that some protozoans and fungi make ATP without mitochondria using structures called hydrogenosomes. (They named it for the hydrogen it produces as waste.) In 1995, scientists discovered mitochondrialike genes in eukaryotes that only had hydrogenosomes. Further research has now confirmed that hydrogenosomes and mitochondria descend from the same endosymbiont. 3. What is the “hydrogen hypothesis” proposed by Martin and Muller? Based on the biochemistry of mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, Martin and Müller sketched out a scenario for how the original merging of two cells occurred. They pointed out that it is very common for bacteria and archaea to depend on each other, with one species producing waste that another species can use as food. “That sort of stuff is all over the bottom of the ocean,” says Martin.
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Christopher Reinemann
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