Designed to tight deadlines sushma rawal 20

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Designed to tight deadlines.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 20 Characteristics of Embedded systems • Manufacturing cost -Non recurring engineering cost for design and development - cost of productions and marketing each unit Best technology choice will depend on number of units we plan to produce
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SUSHMA RAWAL 21 Why do we care? Estimated 98% of 8 Billion CPUs produced in 2000 used for embedded applications Where Are the Processors? Where Are the Processors? Where Are the Processors? Embedded Computers 80% 8.5B Parts per Year 8.5B Parts 8.5B Parts per Year Robots Robots 6% 6% Vehicles Vehicles 12% 12% Direct Direct 2% 2%
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SUSHMA RAWAL 22 Views on embedded System • It is estimated that each year embedded software is written five times as much as 'regular' software • The vast majority of CPU-chips produced world-wide today are used in the embedded market; only a small portion of CPU's is applied in PC's
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SUSHMA RAWAL 23 Key Recent Trends Increasing computation demands e.g. multimedia processing in set-top boxes, HDTV Increasingly networked to eliminate host, and remotely monitor/debug embedded Web servers e.g. Mercedes car with web server cameras, disks etc. that sit directly on networks
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SUSHMA RAWAL 24 Key Recent Trends Increasing need for flexibility time-to-market under ever changing standards! Often must meet tight deadlines. 6 month market window is common. Need careful co-design of h/w & s/w!
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SUSHMA RAWAL 25 The co-design ladder In the past: Hardware and software design technologies were very different Recent maturation of synthesis enables a unified view of hardware and software SW/HW codesign Implementation Assembly instructions Machine instructions Register transfers Compilers (1960's,1970's) Assemblers, linkers (1950's, 1960's) Behavioral synthesis (1990's) RT synthesis (1980's, 1990's) Logic synthesis (1970's, 1980's) Microprocessor plus program bits: “software” VLSI, ASIC, or PLD implementation: “hardware” Logic gates Logic equations / FSM's Sequential program code (e.g., C, VHDL) The choice of hardware versus software for a particular function is simply a tradeoff among various design metrics, like performance, power, size, and especially flexibility; there is no fundamental difference between what hardware or software can implement.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 26 Hardware components of an Embedded System • CPU: Microprocessor/ Microcontroller/DSP • Non Volatile memory: EPROM, Flash • Volatile memory: DRAM, SRAM • System clocks: RTC circuitry, System clock • Standard devices: I/O ports, peripherals, • Custom devices: FPGA, PAL • Communication devices and drivers: Ethernet, RS- 232, USART • Debug mechanism: Debug port, Watchdog timer, JTAG, ICE • Buses for device networks: I2C, CAN, SPI, etc.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 27 Essential Considerations • Response Time -- Real Time Systems • Area • Cost • Portability • Low Power (Battery Life) b Fault Tolerance-continue operation despite hardware and software faults
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SUSHMA RAWAL 28 Basics of Hardware-processor Classifications
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Designed to tight deadlines SUSHMA RAWAL 20 Characteristics...

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