Estimated 98 of 8 billion cpus produced in 2000 used

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Estimated 98% of 8 Billion CPUs produced in 2000 used for embedded applications Where Are the Processors? Where Are the Processors? E m b e d d e d Co m p u t e r s 8 0 % E e d Co E m b e d m p u t e r % 8 0 8.5B Parts per Year 8.5B Parts per Year Robots 6% Vehicles Vehicles 12% Direct Direct 2% 2%
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SUSHMA RAWAL 22 Views on embedded System It is estimated that each year embedded software is written five times as much as 'regular' software The vast majority of CPU-chips produced world-wide today are used in the embedded market; only a small portion of CPU's is applied in PC's
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SUSHMA RAWAL 23 Key Recent Trends Increasing computation demands e.g. multimedia processing in set-top boxes, HDTV Increasingly networked to eliminate host, and remotely monitor/debug embedded Web servers e.g. Mercedes car with web server cameras, disks etc. that sit directly on networks
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SUSHMA RAWAL 24 Key Recent Trends Increasing need for flexibility time-to-market under ever changing standards! Often must meet tight deadlines. 6 month market window is common. Need careful co-design of h/w & s/w!
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SUSHMA RAWAL 25 The co-design ladder In the past: Hardware and software design technologies were very different Recent maturation of synthesis enables a unified view of hardware and software SW/HW codesign Implementation Assembly instructions Machine instructions Register transfers Compilers (1960's,1970's) Assemblers, linkers (1950's, 1960's) Behavioral synthesis (1990's) RT synthesis (1980's, 1990's) Logic synthesis (1970's, 1980's) Microprocessor plus program bits: “software” VLSI, ASIC, or PLD implementation: “hardware” Logic gates Logic equations / FSM's Sequential program code (e.g., C, VHDL) The choice of hardware versus software for a particular function is simply a tradeoff among various design metrics, like performance, power, size, and especially flexibility; there is no fundamental difference between what hardware or software can implement.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 26 Hardware components of an Embedded System CPU: Microprocessor/ Microcontroller/DSP Non Volatile memory: EPROM, Flash Volatile memory: DRAM, SRAM System clocks: RTC circuitry, System clock Standard devices: I/O ports, peripherals, Custom devices: FPGA, PAL Communication devices and drivers: Ethernet, RS- 232, USART Debug mechanism: Debug port, Watchdog timer, JTAG, ICE Buses for device networks: I2C, CAN, SPI, etc.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 27 Essential Considerations Response Time -- Real Time Systems • Area • Cost • Portability Low Power (Battery Life) boxshadowdwn Fault Tolerance-continue operation despite hardware and software faults
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SUSHMA RAWAL 28 Basics of Hardware-processor Classifications
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SUSHMA RAWAL 29 Processor Classifications Based on register size -8 bit -32 bit Based on Endianness - Big Endian - Little Endian Based of instruction set - RISC - CISC
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SUSHMA RAWAL 30 Processor Classifications Based on Bus Architecture -Von Neumann Architecture -Harvard Architecture Based on Functionality -General purpose Processors -Special purpose Processors-DSP, Network
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