For one thing, a superior force that is unforeseen and also inevitable exists in force majeure. As a result, some cases, due to this complexity, are characterized with the references in the court proceedings. Fontaine (90), in his study, found out that such cases have led the commentators to express caution by including the clauses such as Clause 19 binding the contract not only to enlarge what is given in civil law code jurisdiction but also to extend the meaning of a force majeure. The latter could bring about contradiction among the involved parties. However,
Surname 3 to avoid such events, the employers should clarify before issuing a tender that is contained in in the Clause 19, which is consistent with the law overseeing the contract. In other words, due to this clause, force majeure is more comprehensive as it contains civil law within it. Admittedly, Han (38) discovered that there can be a risk of possible imbrications or discrepancies between sub-clauses in force majeure, while, in civil law, the clauses are arranged systematically in sections in order to avoid any inconsistency. In contrast, study done by Maskow (660) illustrates that the force majeure is arranged in an unsystematic manner as it is required by an individual, determining the case who should have a vast knowledge of the applicable clause. In civil law, all the sections in every article are put in such a way it will be readily retrieved during the ruling and can be memorized precisely. The unique risk in force majeure arises when the contractors are accorded to some cover by Clause 65 entailing, eruption of war and Clause 66, comprising of the bad debts. Whereas, in the civil law there are no unique risks involved as per the Act unless otherwise stated by the parties entering into a contract. Besides, civil law is mostly concerned with the terms of the agreement which is well known to all parties. However, the unique risk can be included in the instances where one or both sides are willing to cover them. Some Of The Previous Judgment Based On Force Majeure Albeit, the fundamental goal of building of pacts is to clarify liabilities, such as attainment, payment accountability, and allocation of the perils. As an illustration, some of the previous rulings based on force majeure are as follows. The supreme court of Canada in Atlantic Paper Stock Ltd. versus St. Anne-Nackwawic Pulp & Paper Co. 4 emerged as the leading Canadian force majeure decision. This decree
Surname 4 described the purpose of force majeure as the clause, which operates to discharge a contradicting party when supervening occurs beyond the control of either party, making the performance impossible. Furthermore, the thread is usually surprising as it is commonly beyond reasonable human foresight and skills. In a like manner, there was a contract between St. Anne and Atlantic Paper, in which St. Anne agreed to sign an agreement with Atlantic paper to be supplied with 10000 tons of waste paper per year for ten years. However, after 14 months, St. Anne advised
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