1822- France is allowed to join the congress system Goal of system was to reestablish order and natural boundaries prior to the revolution; want to prevent future revolution; worried about rise of revolutionary movements in Europe and their colonies Congress system was effective; there was no major wars until the 1914 (Great War) Conservatism and Liberalism Upper class are espousing ideas Elite-isms Conservatives: Strong central government Slowly control change Gradual top down change directed by the government Edmund Burke Gains foothold with upper class, government officials, and church leaders Liberalism: Central ideas are equality and justice Want representative government Oppose legally separate classes Personal rights Only France and Great Britain have these rights Limited government unless a time of crisis Government should stay out of the economy Laissez-faire Severely restricted the rights of the working class, unions Wealthy landowners men Mettermien- very conservative Mass-isms appealed to the average person Romanticism Percy Shelley, Lord Byron, Beethoven, The heart knows what it wants, rejects enlightenment and rationality Organic experience of life Return of religion, Reached out to people through emotions They don’t create new ideas; want people to be guided by their own instinct and wills; spontaneity Nationalism Origin- Germany
Johann Gottfried von Herder- Language, religion, culture, geographic location hold people together Each nationality was unique no matter where you live Each group has their own country and that would bring stability and peace Very powerful idea Distinguishes between citizenship and ethnicity Johann Gottlieb Fichte- customary beliefs social forms material trades of a racial religious or social group Cultural nationalism- Form of nationalism in which a nation is defined by shared or inherited culture as opposed to ethnicity Duty of superior culture was to help weaker cultures survive Socialism Most productive and essential group is the working class Called for government that worked for the well being of the worker Opposed to the elites calling the shots Labor unions are vitally important for safety and well being of the working class - Best way to socialize a country was to create communes - Commune- organization within society where workers have everything they need to make goods and provide services and make all decisions as a group; no one person in charge - Utopian Socialism led by, Robert Owen and Charles Fourier, believed society and government owed an obligation to the worker - Fourier called for legal equality of both men and women, abolish marriage and free love. He was considered crazy for his ideas on sex and marriage. Upper class believed socialism was dangerous, it’s a revolutionary idea - Despite the failure of utopian socialism and communes the idea of socialism gets picked up by the rest of Europe.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 8 pages?