Each of the countrys social classes has fared

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Each of the country’s social classes has fared differently in the postrevolutionary period o The peasantry and urban lower middle class, the strong bases of religious orthodoxy, benefited somewhat from the patronage of revolutionary organizations and the state bureaucracy that provided them with some amenities like electricity and paved road - Resistance to clerical rule has been most evident among Iran’s predominantly secular middle class o As the middle class’s economic capital has shrunk in postrevolutionary Iran, it hangs on more than ever to its most precious badge of honor: cultural capital, which is the general cultural background, knowledge, disposition, and skills that are passed from one generation to the next o The middle class is culturally westernized lukewarm toward the clergy o They are the strongest source of opposition to the clergy - Women’s rights o Divorce and custody laws now follow Islamic standards o General restrictions on feminist advocacy persist Including a ban on public discussion of women’s issues in a way that contradicts the basic framework of Islamic law o The legal system enforces sexual restraint in principles o However, in a society where women’s rights have been trampled, women do continue to make important strides into the educational and employment domains School enrolment rates for boys and girls are now close to parity o But still women only make up 3% of the legislature - Young people also present a major social challenge for Iran’s leaders o Most Iranians are too young to remember the revolution
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o A sagging nonoil economy has produced high levels of youth unemployment Political Economy - Several pressures worsened Iran’s economic situation in the early 1980s o Nationalization of many large firms o Massive emigration of skilled professional and entrepreneurs who opposed the regime o A decline in foreign investment from the West o A drop in oil prices o The burdens of the war with Iraq - There are three major currents within the clergy in regards to economic matters o Pragmatists They saw economic recovery as Iran’s highest priority They favored liberal economic policies such as restoration of foreign trade and removal of state controls o Radicals They called for measures to enhance social justice through traditional state intervention and price controls o Conservatives They affirmed private property and a higher level of economic inequality as protected by Islamic law A Rentier State - The 1979 revolution did not alter Iran’s status as a rentier state o Oil still accounts for 85 percent of Iran’s export commodities, two-thirds of the country’s hard-currency earnings, and 40 to 50 percent of government revenue - Iran’s most formidable economic problems are inflation and unemployment - Foreign trade has expanded since the early days of the regime - Iran has a state-dominated and highly politicized economic system where power is concentrated in the hands of the public sector -
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  • Spring '13
  • The Republic, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Pahlavi dynasty, Islamists

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